急性呼吸不全

出版社: 中山書店
著者:
発行日: 2016-04-11
分野: 臨床医学:一般  >  救命/救急
ISBN: 9784521743325
電子書籍版: 2016-04-11 (初版第1刷)
書籍・雑誌
≪全国送料無料でお届け≫
発送目安:8~14営業日

11,000 円(税込)

電子書籍
章別単位での購入はできません
ブラウザ、アプリ閲覧

11,000 円(税込)

商品紹介

急性呼吸不全に対して,集中治療の現場では速やかな対応が求められる.本書では,急性呼吸不全を引き起こす急性呼吸窮迫症候群,慢性閉塞性肺疾患の急性増悪,人工呼吸器関連肺傷害,人工呼吸器関連肺炎などの病態を最新の動向を交えて説明したうえで,肺保護戦略に基づく人工呼吸管理,呼吸療法の実際を具体的に分かりやすく解説した.特殊な人工呼吸様式やECMOについても紹介する.

目次

  • 表紙
  • 読者の方々へ
  • Contents
  • 執筆者一覧
  • 1章 急性呼吸不全の病態
  • 1-1 急性呼吸窮迫症候群
  • [1] ARDSの病態
  • Column アルコール依存症患者とARDS
  • [2] ARDSの定義
  • [3] 病態と定義の乖離
  • [4] 今後の課題
  • 1-2 慢性閉塞性肺疾患の増悪と気管支喘息発作
  • [1] COPDの増悪と治療上の注意点
  • Column 内因性PEEPとは
  • [2] 気管支喘息発作と治療上の注意点
  • 1-3 間質性肺炎の急性増悪
  • [1] 急性増悪の病態と診断基準
  • Column 急性間質性肺炎 ( AIP )
  • [2] 治療
  • [3] 予後
  • 1-4 術後呼吸不全
  • [1] 定義
  • [2] 原因, 機序
  • [3] リスク因子
  • [4] 予防
  • [5] 治療
  • 1-5 胸部外傷による急性呼吸不全
  • [1] 胸部外傷の初期評価で行う検査
  • [2] 急性呼吸不全をきたす胸部外傷
  • 1-6 人工呼吸器関連肺傷害
  • [1] stressとは
  • [2] stressの肺内分布
  • [3] 人工呼吸器関連肺傷害 ( VALI ) の構成要素
  • 1-7 人工呼吸器関連肺炎
  • [1] 定義と疫学
  • [2] 診断
  • [3] VAP発症の予後への影響
  • [4] 新しいサーベイランス指標
  • [5] 病態生理
  • [6] 予防法とエビデンス
  • [7] 治療
  • 1-8 人工呼吸の循環への影響
  • [1] 静脈還流量と心拍出量
  • [2] 自発呼吸が循環に及ぼす影響
  • [3] 陽圧換気が循環に及ぼす影響
  • [4] 左心不全症例の自発呼吸の影響
  • [5] 左心不全症例への陽圧換気
  • [6] 肺傷害が循環に及ぼす影響 : 陽圧換気と右心機能
  • 2章 換気様式とパラメータ
  • 2-1 アシストコントロール換気
  • Column 強制換気と補助換気の違い
  • [1] アシストコントロール換気の概念
  • [2] 量制御, 圧制御 : どちらを選ぶ ?
  • Advice 日本呼吸療法医学会の推奨する換気様式の選択と適正換気条件
  • [3] アシストコントロール換気の欠点を補う換気モード
  • 2-2 間欠的強制換気
  • [1] 間欠的強制換気 ( IMV ) とは
  • [2] 同期式間欠的強制換気 ( SIMV )
  • [3] 臨床応用とその注意点
  • [4] 設定の実際
  • 2-3 圧支持換気
  • [1] 圧支持換気 ( PSV ) とは
  • [2] PSVの作動
  • [3] PSVの利点
  • [4] PSVの立ち上がり時間の調整
  • [5] PSVを使用しない患者
  • [6] PSVによって呼吸仕事量が軽減しているかどうかを評価する方法
  • [7] 吸気トリガー ( 圧トリガー, 流量トリガー )
  • [8] 呼気トリガー ( termination criterion )
  • [9] PSVを用いたウィーニング
  • 2-4 呼気終末陽圧
  • [1] 静的圧容量曲線と肺容量
  • [2] 高いPEEPと低いPEEP
  • [3] 最良のPEEPの選択方法
  • 2-5 逆比換気
  • [1] 逆比換気 ( IRV ) の定義
  • [2] IRVにおける酸素化改善のメカニズム
  • [3] IRVの換気設定における考え方
  • [4] IRVの換気設定の実際
  • [5] IRVを使用してもガス交換能が改善しない理由
  • [6] IRVの考えられうる副作用
  • [7] 動物および臨床データによるIRVのエビデンス
  • 2-6 人工呼吸器との同調性
  • [1] 不同調の診断法
  • [2] 不同調の分類
  • [3] 吸気トリガー相の不同調
  • [4] 換気モードと不同調
  • [5] 吸気相の不同調
  • [6] 吸気から呼気への転換相 ( 吸気サイクルオフ相 ) の不同調
  • [7] 不同調の影響
  • Column proportional assist ventilation ( PAV ) とNAVA
  • 2-7 非侵襲的陽圧換気
  • [1] NPPVのメカニズム
  • [2] NPPVで用いる換気モード
  • [3] NPPVの適応と禁忌, 管理上の注意点
  • Advice NPPVを成功させるためのコツ
  • [4] NPPVが有効な疾患
  • 3章 特殊な人工呼吸様式
  • 3-1 high frequency oscillatory ventilation ( HFOV )
  • [1] high frequency oscillatory ventilation ( HFOV ) とは
  • [2] HFOVの原理
  • [3] 成人でHFOVが可能な人工呼吸器
  • Advice HFOVの禁忌
  • [4] 成人ARDSに対するHFOVの有用性
  • [5] ARDS以外の患者へのHFOVの適応
  • 3-2 airway pressure release ventilation ( APRV )
  • [1] APRVの「定義」と換気メカニズム
  • [2] APRVの設定方法
  • [3] APRVはなぜ必要か ?
  • [4] APRVの適応と世界での使用状況
  • [5] APRV使用上の注意点と問題点
  • 3-3 proportional assist ventilation ( PAV )
  • [1] PAV開発の経緯
  • [2] 換気メカニズムと動作原理
  • Column PAV ( TM ) + の % support ( サポート率 ) の設定方法
  • [3] 使用上の注意
  • [4] PAVモードの活用
  • 3-4 neurally adjusted ventilatory assist ( NAVA )
  • [1] NAVAの原理および換気メカニズム
  • [2] 臨床データ
  • Column NAVAモードの問題点と今後の展望
  • [3] 適応と使用上の注意点
  • 3-5 tracheal gas insufflation ( TGI )
  • [1] メカニズム
  • [2] 方法
  • [3] 臨床データ
  • [4] 注意点
  • [5] TGI中のモニタリング
  • 4章 人工呼吸中の管理
  • 4-1 人工呼吸の適応
  • [1] 人工呼吸管理の適応となる各病態について
  • [2] 人工呼吸開始の判断
  • [3] NPPVか, 気管挿管か
  • 4-2 肺保護的換気法
  • [1] 肺保護的換気法とは
  • Topics どの呼吸器パラメータが無作為比較試験の結果に最も影響を与えたのか
  • [2] 肺保護的換気法を補助する治療
  • 4-3 ウィーニングと抜管基準
  • [1] 離脱開始の基準
  • [2] 自発呼吸トライアル ( SBT )
  • [3] 抜管
  • [4] 人工呼吸からの離脱を促進する方法はあるのか ?
  • 4-4 鎮静, 鎮痛
  • [1] 人工呼吸中の鎮静, 鎮痛の目的
  • [2] 疼痛の管理
  • [3] 不穏の管理
  • [4] せん妄の管理
  • [5] 気管挿管下人工呼吸での鎮静法
  • [6] 非侵襲的陽圧換気 ( NPPV ) での鎮静法
  • 4-5 筋弛緩
  • [1] 急性呼吸不全と筋弛緩薬の歴史
  • [2] 自発呼吸努力を温存した人工呼吸の利点
  • [3] 筋弛緩の利点
  • [4] 筋弛緩施行時の注意点など
  • 4-6 腹臥位療法
  • [1] 腹臥位の生理学的利点
  • Advice 腹臥位では腹部にかかる圧をできるだけ解放する
  • [2] 人工呼吸器関連肺傷害 ( VALI ) の予防
  • [3] 腹臥位療法のエビデンス的意義
  • [4] 腹臥位療法の適応とその条件
  • [5] 腹臥位療法実施における合併症と注意点
  • Column 前傾側臥位療法はマンパワー不足の解決策となりうるか ?
  • 4-7 分離肺換気
  • [1] 分離肺換気とは
  • [2] 適応
  • [3] 分離肺換気の実際
  • Topics 一側肺換気 ( OLV ) と術中肺保護換気
  • [4] 疾患別の留意点
  • [5] 分離肺換気の合併症
  • 4-8 加温・加湿
  • [1] 加温・加湿が必要な理由
  • [2] 人工呼吸中の推奨加湿レベル
  • Column 加温・加湿を理解するうえで必要な用語
  • [3] 加温加湿器
  • [4] 人工鼻
  • 4-9 モニタリング
  • [1] 経皮的酸素飽和度 ( SpO2 )
  • [2] 呼気終末二酸化炭素モニタリング ( PETCO2 )
  • [3] 人工呼吸器のグラフィックモニター
  • [4] electrical impedance tomography ( EIT )
  • 4-10 小児の人工呼吸
  • [1] 小児の呼吸器系の解剖学的・生理学的特徴
  • [2] 小児の呼吸不全とARDS
  • [3] 小児の人工呼吸管理の実際と問題点
  • 4-11 麻酔中の人工呼吸
  • [1] 麻酔中および術後呼吸器合併症
  • [2] 麻酔による肺容量と呼吸の変化
  • [3] 麻酔中の無気肺の予防と肺血流
  • [4] 集中治療室での肺保護的換気
  • [5] 麻酔中の肺保護的換気のエビデンス
  • 4-12 人工呼吸患者の搬送
  • [1] 患者搬送の問題点
  • [2] 病院間搬送における有害事象と対策
  • [3] 院内搬送における有害事象と対策
  • [4] 用手換気と機械換気の違い
  • [5] 搬送用人工呼吸器
  • 5章 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ( ECMO )
  • 5-1 ECMOの概要
  • [1] 定義
  • [2] ECMOに関連する用語
  • [3] ECMOの歴史
  • [4] 現代の治療成績およびエビデンス
  • [5] ECMOの種類
  • [6] ECMOの今後
  • 5-2 VV - ECMOの適応と今後の展望
  • [1] 急性重症呼吸不全に対するVV - ECMOの適応
  • [2] VV - ECMOの今後の展望
  • 6章 急性呼吸不全の薬物療法
  • 6-1 ステロイド療法
  • [1] グルココルチコイド受容体の抗炎症作用
  • [2] 急性呼吸不全に対するステロイド療法
  • Column グルココルチコイド受容体の抗炎症作用機序
  • [3] 敗血症性ショックにおけるステロイド療法
  • 6-2 特殊医療ガス付加療法
  • [1] 一酸化窒素
  • [2] ヘリウム
  • [3] 他のガス
  • 6-3 その他の薬物療法
  • [1] サーファクタント
  • [2] タンパク分解酵素阻害薬
  • [3] 抗凝固薬
  • [4] スタチン
  • [5] β2刺激薬
  • [6] 抗免疫療法
  • [7] 同種幹細胞による治療
  • [8] その他
  • 付録
  • 1. 加温加湿器一覧
  • 2. HMEF一覧
  • 索引
  • 奥付

おすすめ商品

この書籍の参考文献

参考文献のリンクは、リンク先の都合等により正しく表示されない場合がありますので、あらかじめご了承下さい。

本参考文献は電子書籍掲載内容を元にしております。

1章 急性呼吸不全の病態

P.10 掲載の参考文献
2) 日本呼吸器学会ARDSガイドライン作成委員会, 編. ALI/ARDS診療のためのガイドライン. 第2版. 東京 : 学研メディカル秀潤社 ; 2010. p.22-6.
4) Burnham EL, et al. Elevated plasma and lung endothelial selectin levels in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and a history of chronic alcohol abuse. Crit Care Med 2004 ; 32 : 675-9.
6) Siegel MD. Acute respiratory distress syndrome : Epidemiology, pathophysiology, pathology, and etiology in adults. UpToDate. Topic 1609 versio 17. 0
16) Villar J, et al. Assessment of PaO2 / FIO2 for stratification of patients with moderate and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. BMJ Open 2015 ; 5 : e006812.
P.23 掲載の参考文献
1) 日本呼吸器学会COPD ガイドライン第4版作成委員会, 編. COPD (慢性閉塞性肺疾患) 診断と治療のためのガイドライン. 第4版. 東京 : メディカルレビュー社 ; 2013.
2) 「喘息予防・管理ガイドライン 2015」作成委員. 喘息の定義. 喘息の病型. 重篤喘息症状・エマージェンシー (重篤発作). 喘息予防・管理ガイドライン 2015. 東京 : 協和企画 ; 2015. p.2-3, 159.
3) Donaldson GC, et al. Relationship between exacerbation frequency and lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 2002 ; 57 : 847-52.
6) Celli BR, MacNee W ; ATS/ERS Task Force. Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD : A summary of ATS/ERS position paper. Eur Respir J 2004 ; 23 : 932-46.
9) 日本呼吸器学会NPPVガイドライン作成委員会, 編. NPPV (非侵襲的人工呼吸管理) ガイドライン. 改訂第2版. 東京 : 南江堂 ; 2015. p.54-68.
10) 藤井一彦, 興梠博次. NPPVの新潮流-iVAPSモード. 呼と循 2015 ; 63 : 469-76.
11) 蝶名林直彦, 中岡大士. 呼吸不全 COPD 増悪. 救急・集中治療 2015 ; 27 : 375-8.
12) 蝶名林直彦. ハイフローセラピーの適応と限界. 西田修, 監, 竹田普浩, 編. ハイフローセラピー実践マニュアル. 東京 : ライフ・サイエンス ; 2014. p.1-6.
13) Frat JP, et al ; FLORALI Study Group ; REVA Network. High-flow oxygen through nasal cannula in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. N Engl J Med 2015 ; 372 : 2185-96.
14) Atwood C, et al. Effect of High Flow Highly Humidified Air via Nasal Cannula on Respiratory Effort in Patients With Advanced COPD. Chest 2011 ; 140 (4_MeetingAbstracts) : 536A. http://journal.publications.chestnet.org/collection.aspx?categoryID=6283&page=54&isjournal=1
15) Global Initiative For Asthma. http://www.ginasthma.org/
16) Fernandez MM, et al. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in status asthmaticus. Intensive Care Med 2001 ; 27 : 486-92.
17) Meduri GU, et al. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in status asthmaticus. Chest 1996 ; 110 : 767-74.
18) 長谷川隆一, ほか. NPPV. 救急医学 2005 ; 29 : 179-84.
19) 平松哲夫, ほか. エビデンスのやや不十分な疾患-気管支喘息. 蝶名林直彦, 編著. 症例から学ぶNPPV-チーム医療の役割分担. 東京 ; 克誠堂出版 ; 2010. p.51-9.
P.32 掲載の参考文献
1) Kondoh Y, et al. Acute exacerbation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Analysis of clinical and pathologic findings in three cases. Chest 1993 ; 103 : 1808-12.
2) 日本呼吸器学会びまん性肺疾患診断・治療ガイドライン作成委員会, 編. 特発性間質性肺炎 診断と治療の手引き. 改訂第2版. 東京 : 南江堂 ; 2011.
3) Katzenstein AL, et al. Acute interstitial pneumonia. A clinicopathologic, ultrastructural, and cell kinetic study. Am J Surg Pathol 1986 ; 10 : 256-67.
4) 谷口博之, 近藤康博. 特発性肺線維症の急性増悪の新しい診断基準について. 厚生労働科学研究費補助金難治性疾患克服研究事業びまん性肺疾患調査研究班 平成15年度研究報告書. 2004. p.114-9.
12) Kawamura K, et al. Efficacy of azithromycin for treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia : A prospective, open-label study with historical controls. Respiration 2014 ; 87 : 478-84. doi : 10.1159/000358443. Epub 2014 Apr 30.
15) Abe S, et al. Polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column (PMX) treatment for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with acute exacerbation : A multicenter retrospective analysis. Intern Med 2012 ; 51 : 1487-91.
16) 田口善夫, ほか. WEB登録によるIPF急性増悪例のレトロスペクティブ調査の解析結果. 厚生労働科学研究費補助金難治疾患克服事業びまん性肺疾患に関する調査研究班平成18年度報告書. 2007. p.39-45.
19) Mallick S. Outcome of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) ventilated in intensive care unit. Respir Med 2008 ; 102 : 1355-9. doi : 10.1016/j.rmed.2008.06.003. Epub 2008 Jul 17.
20) Fernandez-Perez ER, et al. Ventilator settings and outcome of respiratory failure in chronic interstitial lung disease. Chest 2008 ; 133 : 1113-9. Epub 2007 Nov 7.
P.43 掲載の参考文献
3) Smetana GW, et al. Preoperative pulmonary risk stratification for noncardiothoracic surgery : Systematic review for the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 2006 ; 144 : 581-95.
8) PROVE Network Investigators for the Clinical Trial Network of the European Society of Anaesthesiology, Hemmes SN, et al. High versus low positive end-expiratory pressure during general anaesthesia for open abdominal surgery (PROVHILO trial) : A multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2014 ; 384 : 495-503.
9) Berg H, et al. Residual neuromuscular block is a risk factor for postoperative pulmonary complications. A prospective, randomised, and blinded study of postoperative pulmonary complications after atracurium, vecuronium and pancuronium. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1997 ; 41 : 1095-103.
12) Popping DM, et al. Protective effects of epidural analgesia on pulmonary complications after abdominal and thoracic surgery : A meta-analysis. Arch Surg 2008 ; 143 : 990-9 ; discussion 1000.
P.51 掲載の参考文献
1) 日本外傷学会外傷初期診療ガイドライン改訂第4版編集委員会, 編. 外傷初期診療ガイドライン. 改訂第4版. 東京 : へるす出版 ; 2012. p.85.
P.60 掲載の参考文献
1) Lassen HC. A preliminary report on the 1952 epidemic of poliomyelitis in Copenhagen with special reference to the treatment of acute respiratory insufficiency. Lancet 1953 ; 1 : 37-41.
3) Malpighi M. Duae epistolae de pulmonibus. Second letter to Borelli Florence, Italy ; 1661.
4) Low FN. Electron microscopy of the rat lung. Anat Rec 1952 ; 113 : 437-49.
5) Akoumianaki E, et al ; PLUG Working Group (Acute Respiratory Failure Section of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine). The application of esophageal pressure measurement in patients with respiratory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2014 ; 189 : 520-31.
6) Pelosi P, et al. Prone position in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Eur Respir J 2002 ; 20 : 1017-28.
7) Bar-Yishay E, et al. Effect of heart weight on distribution of lung surface pressures in vertical dogs. J Appl Physio (l 1985) 1986 ; 61 : 712-8.
12) Dreyfuss DG, et al. Intermittent positive-pressure hyperventilation with high inflation pressures produces pulmonary microvascular injury in rats. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985 ; 132 : 880-4.
P.69 掲載の参考文献
3) 厚生労働省. 院内感染対策サーベイランス事業. http://www.nih-janis.jp/report/icu.html
4) Fagon JY, et al. Invasive and noninvasive strategies for management of suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia. A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2000 ; 132 : 621-30.
6) Sakaguchi M, et al. Effects of adherence to ventilator-associated pneumonia treatment guidelines on clinical outcomes. J Infect Chemother 2013 ; 19 : 599-606.
7) CDC. Ventilator-Associated Event (VAE) -For use in adult location only. http://www.cdc.gov/nhsn/PDFs/pscManual/10-VAE_FINAL.pdf
9) Roquilly A, et al. Pneumonia prevention to decrease mortality in intensive care unit : A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2015 ; 60 : 64-75. doi : 10.1093/cid/ciu740.
12) Price R, et al ; SuDDICU Collaboration. Selective digestive or oropharyngeal decontamination and topical oropharyngeal chlorhexidine for prevention of death in general intensive care : Systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ 2014 ; 348 : g2197.
13) Shi Z, et al. Oral hygiene care for critically ill patients to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 ; 8 : CD008367. doi : 10.1002/14651858.CD008367.pub2.
14) 志馬伸朗, 細川康二. 人工呼吸器関連肺炎 (VAP) 予防. 呼吸と循環 2015 ; 63 : 491-5.
P.78 掲載の参考文献

2章 換気様式とパラメータ

P.85 掲載の参考文献
2) 星邦彦, ほか. 呼気の解析に時定数を用いる試み. ICUとCCU 2007 ; 31 : 235-40.
3) 日本呼吸療法医学会・多施設共同研究委員会. ARDSに対するClinical Practice Guideline 第2版. 人工呼吸 2004 ; 21 : 44-61.
4) 星邦彦, 斎藤浩二. 人工呼吸 (麻酔). 麻酔 2007 ; 56 : 542-53.
P.93 掲載の参考文献
1) Kirby RR, et al. A new pediatric volume ventilator. Anesth Analg 1971 ; 50 : 533-7.
2) Kirby RR, et al. Continuous-flow ventilation as an alternative to assisted or controlled ventilation in infants. Anesth Analg 1972 ; 51 : 871-5.
3) Downs JB, et al. Intermittent mandatory ventilation : A new approach to weaning patient from mechanical ventilation. Chest 1973 ; 64 : 331-5.
4) Imanaka H, et al. Effect of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation on respiratory workload in infants after cardiac surgery. Anesthesiology 2001 ; 95 : 881-8.
6) Esteban A, et al. A comparison of four methods of weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. Spanish Lung Failure Collaborative Group. N Engl J Med 1995 ; 332 : 345-50.
P.99 掲載の参考文献
1) Banner MJ, et al. Components of the work of breathing and implications for monitoring ventilator-dependent patients. Crit Care Med 1994 ; 22 : 515-23.
2) Dekel B, et al. Pressure support ventilation. Arch Intern Med 1996 ; 156 : 369-73.
3) Banner MJ, et al. Patient and ventilator work of breathing and ventilatory muscle loads at different levels of pressure support ventilation. Chest 1991 ; 100 : 531-3.
4) Brochard L, et al. Inspiratory pressure support compensates for the additional work of breathing caused by the endotracheal tube. Anesthesiology 1991 ; 75 : 739-45.
6) Tokioka H, et al. The effect of breath termination criterion on breathing patterns and the work of breathing during pressure support ventilation. Anesth Analg 2001 ; 92 : 161-5.
P.105 掲載の参考文献
1) Poulton, PE. Left-sided heart failure with pulmonary edema ; Its treatment with the "pulmonary plus pressure machine". Lancet 1936 ; 2 : 981-3.
2) Ashbaugh DG, et al. Acute respiratory distress in adults. Lancet 1967 ; 290 : 319-23.
3) Rimensberger PC, et al. Lung recruitment during small volume ventilation allows minimal positive end-expiratory pressure without augmenting lung injury. Crit Care Med 1999 ; 27 : 1940-5.
11) Ranieri VM, et al. Effect of mechanical ventilation on inflammatory mediators in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome : A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1999 ; 282 : 54-61.
12) Villar J, et al. A high positive end-expiratory pressure, low tidal volume ventilator strategy improves outcome of persistent acute respiratory distress syndrome : A randomized, controlled trial. Crit Care Med 2006 ; 34 : 1311-8.
P.110 掲載の参考文献
1) Boehme S, et al. Influence of inspiration to expiration ratio on cyclic recruitment and derecruitment of atelectasis in a saline lavage model of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med 2015 ; 43 : 65-74.
3) Yanos J, et al. The physiologic effects of inverse ratio ventilation. Chest 1998 ; 114 : 834-8.
4) Mang H, et al. Cardiorespiratory effects of volume- and pressure-controlled ventilation at various I/E ratios in an acute lung injury model. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995 ; 151 : 731-6.
5) Zavala E, et al. Effect of inverse I : E ratio ventilation on pulmonary gas exchange in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthesiology 1998 ; 88 : 35-42.
6) Mercat A, et al. Cardiorespiratory effects of pressure-controlled ventilation with and without inverse ratio in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Chest 1993 ; 104 : 871-5.
7) Chan K, Abraham E. Effects of inverse ratio ventilation on cardiorespiratory parameters in severe respiratory failure. Chest 1992 ; 102 : 1556-61.
8) Lessard MR, et al. Effects of pressure-controlled with different I : E ratios versus volume-controlled ventilation on respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, and hemodynamics in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthesiology 1994 ; 80 : 983-91.
9) Huang CC, et al. Effects of inverse ratio ventilation versus positive end-expiratory pressure on gas exchange and gastric intramucosal PCO (2) and pH under constant mean airway pressure in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthesiology 2001 ; 95 : 1182-8.
10) 西山芳憲, 伊藤雅治. Inverse Ratio Ventilationの肺機能に及ぼす影響. ICUとCCU 1992 ; 16 : 1091-5.
11) 左利厚生ほか. Inversed Ratio Ventilation (IRV) の臨床的検討. ICUとCCU 1989 ; 13 : 417-25.
P.122 掲載の参考文献
1) de Wit M, et al. Ineffective triggering predicts increased duration of mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med 2009 ; 37 : 2740-5.
4) 内山昭則. 人工呼吸と自発呼吸との同調・不同調 人工呼吸 Jpn J Respir Care 2015 ; 32 : 190-9.
5) Imanaka H, et al. Autotriggering caused by cardiogenic oscillation during flow-triggered mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med 2000 ; 28 : 402-7.
7) Uchiyama A, et al. A comparative evaluation of pressure-triggering and flow-triggering in pressure support ventilation (PSV) for neonates using an animal model. Anaesth Intensive Care 1995 ; 23 : 302-6.
8) Hess DR. Ventilator waveforms and the physiology of pressure support ventilation. Respir Care 2005 ; 50 : 166-86.
9) Blanch L, et al. Measurement of air trapping, intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure, and dynamic hyperinflation in mechanically ventilated patients. Respir Care 2005 ; 50 : 110-23.
12) Maeda Y, et al. Effects of peak inspiratory flow on development of ventilator-induced lung injury in rabbits. Anesthesiology 2004 ; 101 : 722-8.
P.133 掲載の参考文献
1) Antonelli M, et al. A comparison of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation and conventional mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure. N Engl J Med 1998 ; 339 : 429-35.
2) 日本呼吸器学会NPPVガイドライン作成委員会, 編. NPPV (非侵襲的陽圧換気療法) ガイドライン. 改訂第2版. 東京 : 南江堂 ; 2015.
3) Antonelli M, et al. Noninvasive ventilation for treatment of acute respiratory failure in patients undergoing solid organ transplantation : A randomized trial. JAMA 2000 ; 283 : 235-41.
5) Agarwal R, et al. Role of noninvasive ventilation in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome : A proportion meta-analysis. Respir Care 2010 ; 55 : 1653-60.
7) Antonelli M, et al. A multiple-center survey on the use in clinical practice of noninvasive ventilation as a first-line intervention for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med 2007 ; 35 : 18-25.
10) Gupta D, et al. A prospective randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of noninvasive ventilation in severe acute asthma. Respir Care 2010 ; 55 : 536-43.
12) Tomii K, et al. Role of non-invasive ventilation in managing life-threatening acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia. Intern Med 2010 ; 49 : 1341-7.

3章 特殊な人工呼吸様式

P.143 掲載の参考文献
P.150 掲載の参考文献
5) Habashi NM. Other approaches to open-lung ventilation : Airway pressure release ventilation. Crit Care Med 2005 ; 33 (3 Suppl) : S228-40.
6) Liu L, et al. Practical use of airway pressure release ventilation for severe ARDS--A preliminary report in comparison with a conventional ventilatory support. Hiroshima J Med Sci 2009 ; 58 : 83-8.
7) Maxwell RA, et al. A randomized prospective trial of airway pressure release ventilation and low tidal volume ventilation in adult trauma patients with acute respiratory failure. J Trauma 2011 ; 69 : 501-10 ; discussion 511.
10) Albert S, et al. Comparison of "open lung" modes with low tidal volumes in a porcine lung injury model. J Surg Res 2011 ; 166 : e71-81.
12) Powner DJ, Graham R. Airway pressure release ventilation during adult donor care. Prog Transplant 2010 ; 20 : 269-73.
15) 小谷透. Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV). 臨床麻酔 2011 ; 35 : 1403.
16) Stock MC, et al. Airway pressure release ventilation. Crit Care Med 1987 ; 15 : 462-6.
18) Myers TR, MacIntyre NR. Respiratory controversies in the critical care setting. Does airway pressure release ventilation offer important new advantages in mechanical ventilator support? Respir Care 2007 ; 52 : 452-8 ; discussion 458-60.
21) Kuruma Y, et al. Airway pressure release ventilation for respiratory management in a pediatric case after adult-size kidney transplantation. Paediatr Anaesth 2008 ; 18 : 1271-2.
P.158 掲載の参考文献
1) Girard TD, et al. Efficacy and safety of a paired sedation and ventilator weaning protocol for mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care (Awakening and Breathing Controlled trial) : A randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2008 ; 371 : 126-34.
2) 日本集中治療医学会, 日本呼吸療法医学会, 日本クリティカルケア看護学会. 人工呼吸器離脱に関する3学会合同プロトコル. http://www.jsicm.org/pdf/kokyuki_ridatsu1503b.pdf
3) Esteban A, et al. A comparison of four methods of weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. Spanish Lung Failure Collaborative Group. N Engl J Med 1995 ; 332 : 345-50.
6) Chao DC, et al. Patient-ventilator trigger asynchrony in prolonged mechanical ventilation. Chest 1997 ; 112 : 1592-9.
8) Costa R, et al. A physiologic comparison of proportional assist ventilation with load-adjustable gain factors (PAV+) versus pressure support ventilation (PSV). Intensive Care Med 2011 ; 37 : 1494-500.
P.164 掲載の参考文献
4) Sinderby C, Beck J. Proportional assist ventilation and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist--Better approaches to patient ventilator synchrony? Clin Chest Med 2008 ; 29 : 329-42, vii.
5) Beck J, Sinderby C. Proportional assist ventilation and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist. In : Esquinas AM, ed. Applied Technologies in Pulmonary Medicine. Basel : Karger ; 2011. p.1-5.
6) Sinderby C, Beck J. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) : An update and summary of experiences. Neth J Crit Care 2007 ; 11 : 243-52.
P.170 掲載の参考文献
2) Nahum A, et al. Effect of catheter flow direction on CO2 removal during tracheal gas insufflation in dogs. J Appl Physio (l 1985) 1993 ; 75 ; 1238-46.
8) Imanaka H, et al. Expiratory phase and volume-adjusted tracheal gas insufflation : A lung model study. Crit Care Med 1998 ; 26 : 939-46.
12) Nakos G, et al. Tracheal gas insufflation reduces the tidal volume while PaCO2 is maintained constant. Intensive Care Med 1994 ; 20 : 407-13.

4章 人工呼吸中の管理

P.178 掲載の参考文献
1) West JB. Respiratory Physiology : The Essentials. 7th ed. Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ; 2004. 堀江孝至, 訳. ウエスト呼吸生理学入門 疾患肺編. メディカル・サイエンス・インターナショナル ; 2009. p.23-40.
2) 3学会合同呼吸療法認定士認定委員会テキスト編集委員会. 第19回3学会合同呼吸療法認定士講習会テキスト. 2014. p.336-9.
6) Kikuchi T, et al. Protocal-based noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure. J Anesth 2011 ; 25 : 42-9.
P.189 掲載の参考文献
1) Ashbaugh DG, et al. Acute respiratory distress in adults. Lancet 1967 ; 2 : 319-23.
12) 日本呼吸器学会ARDSガイドライン作成委員会. ALI/ARDS診療のためのガイドライン. 第2版. 東京 : 学研メディカル秀潤社 ; 2010.
18) Mercat A, et al ; Expiratory Pressure (Express) Study Group. Positive end-expiratory pressure setting in adults with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome : A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2008 ; 299 : 646-55.
20) Talmor D, et al. Mechanical ventilation guided by esophageal pressure monitoring in acute lung injury. N Engl J Med 2008 ; 359 : 2095-104.
21) Sarge T, Talmor D. Targeting transpulmonary pressure to prevent ventilator induced lung injury. Minerva Anestesiol 2009 ; 75 : 293-9.
22) Wrigge H, et al. Spontaneous breathing improves lung aeration in oleic acid-induced lung injury. Anesthesiology 2003 ; 99 : 376-84.
P.195 掲載の参考文献
1) MacIntyre NR, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for weaning and discontinuing ventilatory support : A collective task force facilitated by The American College of Chest Physicians ; The American Association for Respiratory Care ; And the American College of Critical Care Medicine. Chest 2001 ; 120 : 375S-95S.
2) Esteban A, et al. Effect of spontaneous breathing trial duration on outcome of attempts to discontinue mechanical ventilation. Spanish Lung Failure Collaborative Group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999 ; 159 : 512-8.
3) Haberthur C, et al. Extubation after breathing trials with automatic tube compensation, T-tube, or pressure support ventilation. Acta anaesthesiol Scand 2002 ; 46 : 973-9.
7) Miller RL, Cole RP. Association between reduced cuff leak volume and postextubation stridor. Chest 1996 ; 110 : 1035-40.
11) Su WL, et al. Involuntary cough strength and extubation outcomes for patients in an ICU. Chest 2010 ; 137 : 777-82.
14) 日本集中治療医学会, 日本呼吸療法医学会, 日本クリティカルケア看護学会. 人工呼吸器離脱に関する3学会合同プロトコル. http://square.umin.ac.jp/jrcm/contents/guide/page08.html
16) Esteban A, et al. A comparison of four methods of weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. Spanish Lung Failure Collaborative Group. N Engl J Med 1995 ; 332 : 345-50.
17) Teixeira SN, et al. Comparison of Proportional Assist Ventilation Plus, T-Tube Ventilation, and Pressure Support Ventilation as Spontaneous Breathing Trials for Extubation : A Randomized Study. Respir Care 2015 ; 60 : 1527-35.
21) Testa G, et al. Comparative evaluation of high-flow nasal cannula and conventional oxygen therapy in paediatric cardiac surgical patients : A randomized controlled trial. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2014 ; 19 : 456-61.
P.206 掲載の参考文献
1) 日本呼吸療法医学会 人工呼吸中の鎮静ガイドライン作成委員会 ; 妙中信之, ほか. 人工呼吸中の鎮静のためのガイドライン. 人工呼吸 2007 ; 24 : 146-67.
3) 日本集中治療医学会J-PADガイドライン作成委員会. 日本版・集中治療室における成人重症患者に対する痛み・不穏・せん妄管理のための臨床ガイドライン. 日集中医誌 2014 ; 21 : 539-79.
9) Chang C, et al. A comparison of the effects on respiratory carbon dioxide response, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate of dexmedetomidine, propofol, and midazolam in sevoflurane-anesthetized rabbits. Anesth Analg 2009 ; 109 : 84-9.
P.213 掲載の参考文献
1) Coggeshall JW, et al. Improved oxygenation after muscle relaxation in adult respiratory distress syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1985 ; 145 : 1718-20.
3) Zeravik J, et al. Efficacy of pressure support ventilation dependent on extravascular lung water. Chest 1990 ; 97 : 1412-9.
P.221 掲載の参考文献
1) Guerin C, et al ; PROSEVA Study Group. Prone positioning in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 2013 ; 368 : 2159-68.
4) Walther SM, et al. Pulmonary blood flow distribution in sheep : Effects of anesthesia, mechanical ventilation, and change in posture. Anesthesiology 1997 ; 87 : 335-42.
6) Krayer S, et al. Position and motion of the human diaphragm during anesthesia-paralysis. Anesthesiology 1989 ; 70 : 891-8.
8) Broccard A, et al. Prone positioning attenuates and redistributes ventilator-induced lung injury in dogs. Crit Care Med 2000 ; 28 : 295-303.
9) Valenza F, et al. Prone position delays the progression of ventilator-induced lung injury in rats : Does lung strain distribution play a role? Crit Care Med 2005 ; 33 : 361-7.
13) Gattinoni L, et al ; Prone-Supine Study Group. Effect of prone positioning on the survival of patients with acute respiratory failure. N Engl J Med 2001 ; 345 : 568-73.
14) Taccone P, et al ; Prone-Supine II Study Group. Prone positioning in patients with moderate and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome : A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2009 ; 302 : 1977-84.
16) Abroug F, et al. The effect of prone positioning in acute respiratory distress syndrome or acute lung injury : A meta-analysis. Areas of uncertainty and recommendations for research. Intensive Care Med 2008 ; 34 : 1002-11.
22) Beitler JR, et al. Prone positioning reduces mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome in the low tidal volume era : A meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med 2014 ; 40 : 332-41.
23) Albert RK, et al. Prone position-induced improvement in gas exchange does not predict improved survival in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2014 ; 189 : 494-6.
24) 神津玲, ほか. 前傾側臥位が急性肺損傷および急性呼吸促迫症候群における肺酸素化能, 体位変換時のスタッフの労力および合併症発症に及ぼす影響. 人工呼吸 2009 ; 26 ; 82-9.
P.230 掲載の参考文献
1) 盛直久. 各種換気様式DLV. 渡辺敏, ほか編. 人工呼吸療法. 第2版. 秀潤社 ; 2000. p.71-4.
2) Wilson WC, Benumof JL. Anesthesia for thoracic surgery. Miller RD, ed. Miller's Anesthesia. 6th ed. New York : Churchill Livingstone ; 2005. p.1847-939.
3) Ost D, Corbridge T. Independent lung ventilation. Clin Chest Med 1996 ; 17 : 591-601.
7) Glass DD, et al. Therapy of unilateral pulmonary insufficiency with a double lumen endotracheal tube. Crit Care Med 1976 ; 4 : 323-6.
9) Mortimer AJ, et al. Unilateral high frequency jet ventilation. Reduction of leak in bronchopleural fistula. Intensive Care Med 1984 ; 10 : 39-41.
10) Kaiser LR, et al. The evolution of single lung transplantation for emphysema. The Washington University Lung Transplant Group. J Thorac Cadiovasc Surg 1991 ; 102 : 333-9 ; discussion 339-41.
P.240 掲載の参考文献
1) Branson RD, et al. AARC clinical practice guideline. Humidification during mechanical ventilation. Respir Care 1992 ; 37 : 887-90.
2) Peterson B, et al. Optimizing Mucociliary Function : The Humidification Story. 人工呼吸 2002 ; 19 : 12-20.
3) 宮尾秀樹, ほか. 人工呼吸中の適切な加温加湿. 人工呼吸 2002 ; 19 : 3-11.
4) Ryan SN, et al. Energy balance in the intubated human airway is an indicator of optimal gas conditioning. Crit Care Med 2002 ; 30 : 355-61.
5) 麿田裕. 加湿器としての人工鼻. ICUとCCU 2002 ; 26 : 405-9.
6) Chalon J, et al. The pall ultipor breathing circuit filter-An efficient heat and moisture exchangers. Anesth Analg 1984 ; 63 : 566-70.
7) Shelly M, et al. A comparison of five heat and moisture exchangers. Anaesthesia 1986 ; 41 : 527-32.
8) International Organization for Standardization. Anaesthetic and respiratory equipment. Heat and moisture exchangers for use in humidifying respired gases in humans. Geneva : International Organization for Standardization Technical Committee ; 1992. International Standard ISO 9360.
9) International Organization for Standardization. Anaesthetic and respiratory equipment. Heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) for humidifying respired gases in humans. Part-1. Geneva : International Organization for Standardization Technical Committee ; 2000. International Standard ISO 9360-1.
10) 石井一成. 人工鼻フィルター-加温・加湿のしくみ-. 人工呼吸 2004 ; 21 : 1-7.
11) 三村晋子, ほか. 赤外線サーモグラフィを用いた人工呼吸中における人工鼻フィルターの熱損失について. 人工呼吸 2007 ; 24 : 282.
12) 富田敏司, ほか. 赤外線サーモグラフィによる人工鼻フィルターの熱損失の検討-モデル肺を用いて-. 人工呼吸 2008 ; 25 : 41-6.
13) American Association for Respiratory Care, Restrepo RD, et al. AARC Clinical Practice Guideline. Humidification during invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation : 2012. Respir Care 2012 ; 57 : 782-8. http://www.rcjournal.com/cpgs/pdf/12.05.0782.pdf
14) Thomachot L, et al. Randomized clinical trial of extended use of a hydrophobic condenser humidifier : 1 vs 7days. Crit Care Med 2002 ; 30 : 232-7.
15) 高橋伸二. 人工鼻・Heat and Moisture Exchanger Filter (HMEF) の適切な交換頻度について. 人工呼吸 2004 ; 21 : 8-12.
16) 日生下由紀, ほか. 大阪大学医学部附属病院における人工呼吸管理中の加湿方法についての調査. 人工呼吸 2007 ; 24 : 47-51.
17) 宮川響, ほか. 気管チューブ内腔への吸気ガス湿度の影響-人工呼吸中の分泌物固形化について-. 埼玉医科大学雑誌 2001 ; 28 : 89-94.
P.248 掲載の参考文献
1) 日本呼吸療法医学会. 人工呼吸器安全使用のための指針 第2版. http://square.umin.ac.jp/jrcm/contents/guide/page06.html
2) 日本集中治療医学会. 集中治療専門医テキスト (電子版). 東京 : 総合医学社 ; 2013. p.102-17.
3) Miller RD, ed. Miller's Anesthesia. 6th ed. Philadelphia : Elsevier, Churchill Livingstone ; 2005. 武田順三, 監修. 稲田英一, ほか監訳. ミラー麻酔科学. 原著第6版. 東京 : メディカル・サイエンス・インターナショナル ; 2007. p.1119-53.
P.255 掲載の参考文献
1) Shi F, et al. Cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes in children : A meta-analysis. J Anesth 2016 ; 30 : 3-11. doi : 10.1007/s00540-015-2062-4. Epub 2015 Aug 22.
2) 竹内宗之. 小児の呼吸管理. 集中治療専門医テキスト (電子版). 東京 : 総合医学社 ; 2013. p.118-31.
3) Motoyama EK, Finder JD. Respiratory physiology in infants and children. In : Davis PJ, et al, eds. Smith's Anesthesia for Infants and Children. 8th ed. Philadelphia : Elsevier Mosby ; 2011.
4) Dobbinson TL, et al. Functional residual capacity (FRC) and compliance in anaesthetized paralysed children. II. Clinical results. Can Anaesth Soc J 1973 ; 20 : 322-33.
9) Moon K, et al. Tidal volume accuracy during non-invasive ventilation with modern neonatal mechanical ventilators. Critical Care 2015 ; 19 : 262.
P.262 掲載の参考文献
1) Kavanagh BP, Hedenstierna G. Respiratory physiology and pathophysiology. In : Miller RD, ed. Miller's Anesthesia. 8th ed. Philadelphia : Saunders : 2015. p.444-72.
4) Gajic O, et al. Ventilator-associated lung injury in patients without acute lung injury at the onset of mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med 2004 ; 32 : 1817-24.
6) Futier E, et al ; IMPROVE Study Group. A trial of intraoperative low-tidal-volume ventilation in abdominal surgery. N Engl J Med 2013 ; 369 : 428-37.
7) PROVE Network Investigators for the Clinical Trial Network of the European Society of Anaesthesiology, Hemmes SNT, et al. High versus low positive end-expiratory pressure during general anaesthesia for open abdominal surgery (PROVHILO trial) : A multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2014 ; 384 : 495-503.
P.272 掲載の参考文献
3) Barry PW, Ralston C. Adverse events occurring during interhospital transfer of the critically ill. Arch Dis Child 1994 ; 71 : 8-11.
4) Singh JM, et al. Ventilation practices and critical events during transport of ventilated patients outside of hospital : A retrospective cohort study. Prehosp Emerg Care 2009 ; 13 : 316-23.
6) Zuchelo LT, Chiavone PA. Intrahospital transport of patients on invasive ventilation : Cardiorespiratory repercussions and adverse events. J Bras Pneumol 2009 ; 35 : 367-74.
8) Bercault N, et al. Intrahospital transport of critically ill ventilated patients : A risk factor for ventilator-associated pneumonia-A matched cohort study. Crit Care Med 2005 ; 33 : 2471-8.
12) Chang DW ; American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC). AARC Clinical Practice Guideline : In-hospital transport of the mechanically ventilated patient. 2002 revision & update. Respir Care 2002 ; 47 : 721-3.
13) Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists ; Royal Australasian College of Physicians ; Australasian College for Emergency Medicine. Minimum standards for transport of critically ill patients. Adopted March 2003. http://www.acem.org.au/media/policies_and_guidelines/min_standard_crit_ill.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2013.
15) Nakamura T, et al. Intrahospital transport of critically ill patients using ventilator with patient-triggering function. Chest 2003 ; 123 : 159-64.
17) Blakeman TC, et al. Accuracy of the oxygen cylinder duration calculator of the LTV-1000 portable ventilator. Respir Care 2009 ; 54 : 1183-6.

5章 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ( ECMO )

P.281 掲載の参考文献
1) Gibbon JH Jr. Application of a mechanical heart and lung apparatus to cardiac surgery. Minn med 1954 : 37 : 171-85.
2) McLean J. The discovery of heparin. Circulation 1959 ; 19 : 75-8.
3) Hill JD, et al. Prolonged extracorporeal oxygenation for acute post-traumatic respiratory failure (shock-lung syndrome). Use of the Bramson membrane lung. N Engl J Med 1972 ; 286 : 629-34.
4) Zapol WM, et al. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in severe acute respiratory failure. A randomized prospective study. JAMA 1979 ; 242 : 2193-6.
5) Kolobow T, et al. Massive pulmonary infarction during total cardiopulmonary bypass in unanesthetized spontaneously breathing lambs. Int J Artif Organs 1981 ; 4 : 76-81.
6) Bartlett RH, et al. Extracorpreal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) cardiopulmonary support in infancy. Trans Am Soc Artif Organs 1976 ; 22 : 80-93.
7) Bartlett RH, et al. Extracorporeal circulation in neonatal respiratory failure : A prospective randomized study. Pediatrics 1985 ; 76 : 479-87.
8) O'Rourke PP, et al. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and conventional medical therapy in neonates with persistent pulmonary hypertention of the newborn : A prospective randomized study. Pediatrics 1989 ; 84 : 957-63.
9) UK collaborative randomized trial of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. UK Collaborative ECMO Trial Group. Lancet 1996 ; 348 : 75-82.
10) Gattinoni L, et al. Low-frequency positive pressure ventilation with extracorporeal CO2 removal in severe acute respiratory failure. JAMA 1986 ; 256 : 881-6.
12) Kolla S, et al. Extracorporeal life support for 100 adult patients with severe respiratory failure. Ann Surg 1997 ; 226 : 544-64.
13) Lewandowski K, et al. High survival rate in 122 ARDS patients managed according to a clinical algorithm including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Intensive Care Med 1997 ; 23 : 819-35.
14) Hemmila MR, et al. Extracorporeal life support for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults. Ann Surg 2004 ; 240 : 595-605 ; discussion 605-7.
16) Peek GJ, et al. Efficacy and economic assessment of conventional ventilatory support versus extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe adult respiratory failure (CESAR) : A multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2009 ; 374 : 1351-63.
18) Noah MA, et al. Referral to an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation center and mortality among patients with severe 2009 influenza A (H1N1). JAMA 2011 ; 306 : 1659-68.
21) Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO). ELSO Registry Report. International summary report. January 2015.
23) Harvey C, et al. Bicaval Dual-lumen Cannula for Adult Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation : A single institution experience of 286 procedures. AATS annual meeting 2014. http://aats.org/annualmeeting/Program-Books/2014/presentations/272/Avalon.pdf
25) Umei N, et al. Successful application of venoarterial-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the reversal of severe cardiorespiratory failure. BMJ Case Rep 2015 Jun 8.
26) Clinical Trials. gov Identifier : NCT01470703.
P.287 掲載の参考文献
2) Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO). Guidelines for Adult Respiratory Failure. https://www.elso.org/Portals/0/IGD/Archive/FileManager/989d4d4d14cusersshyerdocumentselsoguidelinesforadultrespiratoryfailure1.3.pdf
3) Kolla S, et al. Extracorporeal life support for 100 adult patients with severe respiratory failure. Ann Surg 1997 ; 226 : 544-64.
4) Peek GJ, et al. Efficacy and economic assessment of conventional ventilatory support versus extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe adult respiratory failure (CESAR) : A multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2009 ; 374 : 1351-63.
6) Hemmila MR, et al. Extracorporeal life support for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults. Ann Surg 2004 ; 240 : 595-605 ; discussion 605-7.

6章 急性呼吸不全の薬物療法

P.294 掲載の参考文献
4) Bone RC, et al. Early methylprednisolone treatment for septic syndrome and the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Chest 1987 ; 92 : 1032-6.
9) Annane D, et al. Effect of treatment with low doses of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone on mortality in patients with septic shock. JAMA 2002 ; 288 : 862-71.
10) Sprung CL, et al ; CORTICUS Study Group. Hydrocortisone therapy for patients with septic shock. N Engl J Med 2008 ; 358 : 111-24.
P.299 掲載の参考文献
2) Moncada S, et al. Nitric oxide : Physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. Pharmacol Rev 1991 ; 43 : 109-42.
3) Stamler JS, et al. Nitric oxide regulates basal systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance in healthy humans. Circulation 1994 ; 89 : 2035-40.
4) Frostell C, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide. A selective pulmonary vasodilator reversing hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Circulation 1991 ; 83 : 2038-47.
5) Pepke-Zaba J, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide as a cause of selective pulmonary vasodilation in pulmonary hypertension. Lancet 1991 ; 338 : 1173-4.
9) Stuehr DJ, Nathan CF. Nitric oxide. A macrophage product responsible for cytostasis and respiratory inhibition in tumor target cells. J Exp Med 1989 ; 169 : 1543-55.
10) Greenbaum R, et al. Effects of higher oxides of nitrogen on the anaesthetized dog. Br J Anaesth 1967 ; 39 : 393-404.
11) Hugod C. Effect of exposure to 43 ppm nitric oxide and 3. 6 ppm nitrogen dioxide on rabbit lung : A light and electron microscope study. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1979 ; 42 : 159-67.
12) Young JD, et al. Methaemoglobin production in normal adults inhaling low concentrations of nitric oxide. Intensive Care Med 1994 ; 20 : 581-4.
13) Cuthbertson BH, et al. UK guidelines for the use of inhaled nitric oxide therapy in adult ICUs. American-European Consensus Conference on ALI/ARDS. Intensive Care Med 1997 ; 23 : 1212-8.
14) Executive HS. Occupational exposure limits 1996. London ; HMSO : 1996.
17) Manktelow C, et al. Physiologic determinants of the response to inhaled nitric oxide in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthesiology 1997 ; 87 : 297-307.
18) Holzmann A, et al. Hyporesponsiveness to inhales nitric oxide in isolated, perfused lungs from endotoxin-challenged rats. Am J Physiol 1996 ; 271 : L981-6.
19) Brett SJ, et al. Clinical correlates in acute lung injury : Response to inhaled nitric oxide. Chest 1998 ; 114 : 1397-404.
22) Ruan SY, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide therapy and risk of renal dysfunction : A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Crit Care 2015 ; 19 : 137-46.
23) Imanaka H, et al. Inaccuracies of nitric oxide delivery systems during adult mechanical ventilation. Anesthesiology 1997 ; 86 : 676-88.
24) Kirmse M, et al. Delivery of inhaled nitric oxide using the Ohmeda INOvent Delivery System. Chest 1998 ; 113 : 1650-57.
25) Fujino Y, et al. Nitric oxide delivery during high frequency oscillatory ventilation. Respir Care 2000 ; 45 : 1097-104.
26) Atz AM, et al. Rebound pulmonary hypertension after inhalation of nitric oxide. Ann thorac Surg 1996 ; 62 : 1759-64.
27) Chen I, et al. Endothelin-1 and nitric oxide synthase in short rebound reaction to short exposure to inhaled nitric oxide. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2001 ; 281 : H124-31.
28) Tassaux D, et al. Calibration of seven ICU ventilators for mechanical ventilation with helium-oxgen mixtures. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999 ; 160 : 22-32.
29) Swidwa DM, et al. Helium-oxygen breathing in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chest 1985 ; 87 : 790-95.
30) Gluck EH, et al. Helium-oxygen mixtures in intubated patients with status asthmaticus and respiratory acidosis. Chest 1990 ; 98 : 693-8.
31) Dole M, et al. Hyperbaric hydrogen therapy : A possible treatment for cancer. Science 1975 ; 190 : 152-4.
32) Ohsawa I, et al. Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nat Med 2007 ; 13 : 688-94.
P.304 掲載の参考文献
4) Anzueto A, et al. Aerosolized surfactant in adults with sepsis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. Exosurf Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Sepsis Study Group. N Engl J Med 1996 ; 334 : 1417-21.
5) Spragg RG, et al. Effect of recombinant surfactant protein C-based surfactant on the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 2004 ; 51 : 884-92.
12) Zeiher BG, et al ; STRIVE Study Group. Neutrophil elastase inhibition in acute lung injury : Results of the STRIVE study. Crit Care Med 2004 ; 32 : 1695-702.
15) Bernard GR, et al ; Recombinant human protein C Worldwide Evaluation in Severe Sepsis (PROWESS) study group. Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis. N Engl J Med 2001 ; 344 : 699-709.
17) Ranieri VM, et al ; PROWESS-SHOCK Study Group. Drotrecogin alfa (activated) in adults with septic shock. N Engl J Med 2012 ; 366 : 2055-64.
20) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Clinical Trials Network, Matthay MA, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of an aerosolized β2-agonist for treatment of acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011 ; 184 : 561-8.
21) Gao Smith F, et al ; BALTI-2 study investigators. Effect of intravenous β-2 agonist treatment on clinical outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome (BALTI-2) : A multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2012 ; 379 : 229-35.
22) Angus DC, et al. E5 murine monoclonal antiendotoxin antibody in gram-negative sepsis : A randomized controlled trial. E5 Study Investigators. JAMA 2000 ; 283 : 1723-30.
23) McCloskey RV, et al. Treatment of septic shock with human monoclonal antibody HA-1A. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. CHESS Trial Study Group. Ann Intern Med 1994 ; 121 : 1-5.
24) Opal SM, et al ; ACCESS Study Group. Effect of eritoran, an antagonist of MD2-TLR4, on mortality in patients with severe sepsis : The ACCESS randomized trial. JAMA 2013 ; 309 : 1154-62.
27) Zheng G, et al. Treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome with allogeneic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells : A randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Resp Res 2014 ; 15 : 39.
30) Bone RC, et al. Randomized double-blind, multicenter study of prostaglandin E1 in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Prostaglandin E1 Study Group. Chest 1989 ; 96 : 114-9.
31) Abraham E, et al. Liposomal prostaglandin E1 (TLC C-53) in acute respiratory distress syndrome : A controlled, randomized, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial. TLC C-53 ARDS Study Group. Crit Care Med 1999 ; 27 : 1478-85.
32) The ARDS Network. Ketoconazole for early treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome : A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2000 ; 283 : 1995-2002.
33) Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of lisofylline for early treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med 2002 ; 30 : 1-6.

最近チェックした商品履歴

Loading...