ワクチン・レース

出版社: 羊土社
著者:
発行日: 2020-11-01
分野: 臨床医学:内科  >  感染症/AIDS
ISBN: 9784758112130
電子書籍版: 2020-11-01 (第1刷)
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1962年6月霧雨の朝,ある若い科学者が仕事へ出かけていった―ワクチン,細胞老化,産学連携を結ぶヘイフリック.彼や関係者証言から60年代の熾烈な風疹ワクチン開発を描くノンフィクション.解説/岩田健太郎

目次

  • プロローグ

    第1部 細胞
     第1章:はじまり
     第2章:発見
     第3章:ウィスター再生
     第4章:染色体異常と中絶
     第5章:死にゆく細胞と定説
     第6章:スウェーデンからやってきた細胞
     第7章:ポリオワクチンの〝お客様〟
     第8章:人体実験

    第2部 風疹
     第9章:姿を見せた厄災
     第10章:小さな命を襲う災い
     第11章:狂犬病
     第12章:孤児と市井の人々
     第13章:馴染みの悪魔
     第14章:政治と圧力
     第15章:大脱走
     第16章:熊の穴
     第17章:細胞をめぐる闘い
     第18章:DBSの敗北
     第19章:躍進

    第3部 WI−38細胞をめぐる攻防
     第20章:奪われた命とスカイラブ
     第21章:細胞Inc.
     第22章:苦難の道
     第23章:ワクチン開発競争
     第24章:生物学Inc.
     第25章:ヘイフリック限界の解明
     第26章:ブート・キャンプの病原体とバチカンへの嘆願
     第27章:巣立ちのとき

    エピローグ:その後

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本参考文献は電子書籍掲載内容を元にしております。

プロローグ

P.10 掲載の参考文献
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第1部 細胞

P.24 掲載の参考文献
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6. John M. Barry, The Great Influenza:The Story of the Deadliest Pandemic in History (New York:Viking Penguin, 2004), 326. 『グレート・インフルエンザ』(ジョン・バリー作, 平沢正夫訳, 共同通信社, 2005年)
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Richard A. Varbero, "Philadelphia's South Italians in the 1920s, " in Peoples of Philadelphia, Davis and Haller, eds., 260-61.
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P.33 掲載の参考文献
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6. Thomas M. Rivers, "Filterable Viruses:A Critical Review, " Journal of Bacteriology xiv, no.4 (1927):228.
7. Thomas M. Rivers, ed., Filterable Viruses (Baltimore:Williams and Wilkins, 1928), 1-418.
8. Albert B. Sabin and Peter K. Olitsky, "Cultivation of Poliomyelitis Virus in Vitro in Human Embryonic Nervous Tissue, " Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 34 (1936):357-59.
9. Rachel Benson Gold, "Lessons from Before Roe:Will Past Be Prologue?" Guttmacher Report on Public Policy 6 (2003):8-11, www.guttmacher.org/about/gpr/2003/03/lessons-roe-will-past-be-prologue
10. Carole R. McCann, "Abortion, " in The Oxford Companion to United States History, ed. Paul S. Boyer (New York:Oxford University Press, 2001), 3
11. John F. Enders, Thomas H. Weller, and Frederick C. Robbins, "Cultivation of the Lansing Strain of Poliomyelitis Virus in Cultures of Various Human Embryonic Tissues, " Science 109 (1949):85-87.
12. Saul Benison, Tom Rivers:Reflections on a Life in Medicine and Science:An Oral History Memoir Prepared by Saul Benison (Cambridge, MA, and London:MIT Press, 1967), 446.
14. Leonard Hayflick, "Early Days at Merck, "Web of Stories, July, 2011, www.webofstories.com/play/leonard.hayflick/13.
16. Wistar Institute, "Our History, " www.wistar.org/the-institute/our-history (accessed June 7, 2016).
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18. Warren, "A History of the Wistar Institute" 2, 47, 61, 78, 79
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20. Warren, "History of the Wistar Institute, " 111.
21. Warren, "History of the Wistar Institute, " 101.
23. Leonard Hayflick, "The Growth of Human and Poultry Pleuropneumonia-like Organisms in Tissue Cultures and in Ovo and the Characterization of an Infectious Agent Causing Tendovaginitis with Arthritis in Chickens" (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1956).
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https://rybicki.wordpress.com/2012/02/06/a-short-history-of-the-discovery-of-viruses-part-1/.
https://rybicki.wordpress.com/2012/02/07/a-short-history-of-the-discovery-of-viruses-part-2/
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Rosemary Nossif, Before Roe:Abortion Policy in the States (Philadelphia:Temple University Press, 2001), 33-35.
Henry J. Sangmeister, "A Survey of Abortion Deaths in Philadelphia from 1931 to 1940 Inclusive, " American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 46 (1943):757-58.
Erik Larson, The Devil in the White City:Murder, Magic, and Madness at the Fair That Changed America (New York:Random House, 2003). 『悪魔と博覧会』(エリック・ラーソン作, 野中邦子訳, 文藝春秋, 2006年)
Paul Offit, Vaccinated:One Man's Quest to Defeat the World's Deadliest Diseases (New York:HarperCollins, 2007), 79-80.
P.50 掲載の参考文献
3. John Rowan Wilson, Margin of Safety (Garden City, NY:Doubleday, 1963), 140.
6. Minutes of Wistar Institute Board of Managers Meeting, February 24, 1967, page 4, UPT 50 R252, box 68, file folder 12 (Wistar Institute 1966-67), Isidor Schwaner Ravdin Papers, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania
8. Michael Katz, "A Devotion to 'Real Science, ' " in "Symposium in Honor of Hilary Koprowski's Achievements, " Journal of Infectious Diseases 212, Supplement 1 (2015):S6.
9. Stacey Burling, "Hilary Koprowski, Polio Vaccine Pioneer, Dead at 96, " Philadelphia Inquirer, April 14, 2013, http://articles.philly.com/2013-04-15/news/38559037_1_polio-vaccine-hilary-koprowski-rabies-vaccine.
10. Roger Vaughan, Listen to the Music:The Life of Hilary Koprowski (New York:Springer-Verlag, 2000), 5.
11. Bob Gallo, "Lessons from a World Trip, " in "Symposium in Honor of Hilary Koprowski's Achievements, " S6.
12. Vaughan, Listen to the Music, 111.
13. I. S. Ravdin to Jonathan Rhoads, January 27, 1960, UPT 50 R252, box 65, file folder 56 (Wistar Institute, 1959-1961), Isidor Schwaner Ravdin Papers, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania.
14. "Draft of Minutes of Meeting of the Executive Committee of the Board of Managers of the Wistar Institute, " September 21 1960, and I. S. Ravdin, "Memo, " December 15, 1960, both in UPC 1.4 , box 6, file folder "Wistar Institute Board of Managers, " Vice President for Medical Affairs Correspondence and Records, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania
15. "Resolution by the Senior Members of the Scientific Staff of the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, to Be Forwarded to the President and Board of Managers, " December 30, 1959, UPA4, box 114, file folder 17 (Wistar Institute IV:1955-1960), Office of the President, Gaylord Probasco Harnwell Administration, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania.
16. Vaughan, Listen to the Music, 17-40
17. Vaughan, Listen to the Music, 42, 67.
18. Vaughan, Listen to the Music, 44.
19. David M. Oshinsky, Polio:An American Story (New York:Oxford University Press, 2005), 138-42.
20. Vaughan, Listen to the Music, 1-2.
21. Hilary Koprowski, Thomas W. Norton, and Walsh McDermott, "Isolation of Poliomyelitis Virus from Human Serum by Direct Inoculation into a Laboratory Mouse, " Public Health Reports 62, no.41 (1947):1467-76.
22. Hilary Koprowski, George A. Jervis, and Thomas W. Norton, "Immune Responses in Human Volunteers upon Oral Administration of a Rodent-Adapted Strain of Poliomyelitis Virus, " American Journal of Hygiene 55 (1952):109.
23. Oshinsky, Polio, 135.
24. Hilary Koprowski, "A Condensed Version of an Unpublished Lecture, 'Frontiers of Virology:Development of Vaccines Against Polio Virus, ' at the Medical School of the Hershey Medical Center, June 18, 1980, " in Koprowska, A Woman Wanders, 298.
25. James W. Trent Jr., Inventing the Feeble Mind:A History of Mental Retardation in the United States (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London:University of California Press, 1994), Kindle e-book, location 3312 of 5061.
26. Records of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, Committee on Medical Research, Contractor Records, C 450, R L2, Bimonthly Progress Report, PI Alf S. Alving (University of Chicago), August 1, 1944, David J. Rothman, Strangers at the Bedside:A History of How Law and Bioethics Transformed Medical Decision Making (New York:Aldine de Gruyter, 1991, 2003), 36. 『医療倫理の夜明け-臓器移植・延命治療・死ぬ権利をめぐって』(デイヴィッド・ロスマン作, 酒井忠昭訳, 晶文社, 2000年)
27. Records of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, Committee on Medical Research, Contractor Records, C 450, R L2, Bimonthly Progress Report, PI Alf S. Alving (University of Chicago), August 1, 1944, David J. Rothman, Strangers at the Bedside:A History of How Law and Bioethics Transformed Medical Decision Making (New York:Aldine de Gruyter, 1991, 2003), 38. 『医療倫理の夜明け-臓器移植・延命治療・死ぬ権利をめぐって』(デイヴィッド・ロスマン作, 酒井忠昭訳, 晶文社, 2000年)
28. Thomas Francis Jr. et al., "Protective Effect of Vaccination Against Induced Influenza A, " Journal of Clinical Investigation 24, no.4 (1945):536-46
29. Koprowski, "Condensed Version of an Unpublished Lecture, " 298.
30. Koprowski, Jervis, and Norton, "Immune Responses in Human Volunteers, " 109.
31. Oshinsky, Polio, 136.
32. Koprowski, "Condensed Version of an Unpublished Lecture, " 299.
33. Vaughan, Listen to the Music, 15-16.
34. Koprowski, Jervis and Norton, "Immune Responses in Human Volunteers, " 125.
35. Norman Topping (with Gordon Cohn), Recollections (Los Angeles:University of California Press, 1990), 139-41.
36. Leonard Warren, "A History of the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology" (unpublished manuscript, March 25, 2014), 121-22.
37. Vaughan, Listen to the Music, 77-78
38. William DuBarry, president of the Wistar Institute board of managers, to Hilary Koprowski, January 24, 1957, UPA4 (Office of the President Records), box 114, folder 19 (Wistar Institute:Administrative Appointments, 1955-1960), University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania.
39. Vaughan, Listen to the Music, 77.
40. Vaughan, Listen to the Music, 81.
41. Vaughan, Listen to the Music, 63-64.
42. Vaughan, Listen to the Music, 79.
43. Warren, "History of the Wistar Institute, " 127.
44. Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Biennial Report, 1958-1959, 9-11, Wistar Institute Archives, Philadelphia, PA.
45. Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Biennial Report, 1958-1959, 24, Wistar Institute Archives, Philadelphia, PA.
46. Elsa M. Zitcer, Jorgen Fogh, and Thelma H. Dunnebacke, "Human Amnion Cells for Large-Scale Production of Poliovirus, " Science 122, no.3157 (1955):30
47. Leonard Hayflick, "The Establishment of a Line (WISH) of Human Amnion Cells in Continuous Cultivation, " Experimental Cell Research 23, no.1 (1961):14-20.
48. Stanley M. Gartler, National Cancer Institute Monograph 26, no.167 (1967)
49. Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Biennial Report, 1958-1959, 24
Trustee Minutes, vol.26, page 313, collection no.UPA 1.1, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania
I. S. Ravdin to Francis Boyer, July 1, 1960, UPT 50 R252, box 65, file folder 56 (Wistar Institute, 1959-1961), Isidor Schwaner Ravdin Papers, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania
Committee on the Wistar Institute to President Gaylord P. Harnwell, November 17, 1959, p. 3, UPA4, box 114, file folder 24 (Goddard Report:Committee on the Wistar Institute 1955-1960), Office of the President, Gaylord Probasco Harnwell Administration, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania
"Tentative Minutes, Wistar Executive Committee, 11/18/59, " pp. 2-3, UP(Wistar Institute IV:1955-1960), Office of the President, Gaylord Probasco Harnwell Administration, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania;correspondence among Joseph Stokes Jr., Hilary Koprowski, Jonathan E. Rhoads, Albert Linton, and I. S. Ravdin, January 20, 1960, through February 22, 1960, call no.B.St65p, file folder "Koprowski, Hilary #2, " Joseph Stokes Papers Series I, American Philosophical Society Archives.
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Werner Henle et al., "Experiments on Vaccination of Human Beings Against Epidemic Influenza, " Journal of Immunology 53 (1946):75-93.
Jonas E. Salk et al., "Protective Effect of Vaccination Against Induced Influenza B, " Journal of Clinical Investigation 24, no.4 (1945):547-53.
Warren, "History of the Wistar Institute, " 122.
Jorgen Fogh and R. O. Lund, "Continuous Cultivation of Epithelial Cell Strain (FL) from Human Amniotic Membrane, " Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 94, no.3 (1957):532-37
Thelma H. Dunnebacke and Elsa M. Zitcer, "Transformation of Cells from the Normal Human Amnion into Established Strains, " Cancer Research 17 (1957):1047-53.
Stanley M. Gartler, "Apparent HeLa Cell Contamination of Human Heteroploid Cell Lines, " Nature 217 (1968):750-51.
P.67 掲載の参考文献
1. Robert E. Hall, "Abortion in American Hospitals, " American Journal of Public Health 57, no.11 (1967):1933.
2. Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Biennial Report:1958-1959, 25, Wistar Institute Archives, Philadelphia, PA.
3. D. A. Rigoni-Stern, "Fatti Statistici Relativi alle Malattie Cancerose Che Servirono di Base Alle Poche Cose Dette dal Dott., " G Servire Progr Path Tera 2 (1842):507-17
4. V. Ellerman and O. Bang, "Experimentelle Leukamie bei Huhnern, " Zentralbl Bakteriol Parasitenkd Infectionskr Hyg Abt I 46 (1908):595-609.
5. Peyton Rous, "A Sarcoma of the Fowl Transmissible by an Agent Separable from the Tumor Cells, " Journal of Experimental Medicine 13, no.4 (1911):397-411, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2124874/pdf/397.pdf.
6. George Klein, "The Strange Road to the Tumor-Specific Transplantation Antigens, " Cancer Immunity 1 (2001):6, http://cancerimmunolres.aacrjournals.org/content/canimmarch/1/1/6.full.
7. "Medicine:Cornering the Killer, " Time, July 27, 1959, http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,864777,00.html.
8. Hilary Koprowski, "The Viral Concept of the Etiology of Cancer, " undated article from unidentified journal, c. 1960, p. 57, UPT 50 R252, box 22, file folder 24, "Professional Correspondence, Kop-Kos, " Isidor Schwaner Ravdin Papers, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania
9. Joe Hin Tjio and Albert Levan, "The Chromosome Number of Man, " Hereditas 42 (1956):1-6, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1601-5223.1956.tb03010.x/epdf.
10. T. C. Tsu, Charles S. Pomerat, and Paul S. Moorhead, "Mammalian Chromosomes in Vitro VIII:Heteroploid Transformation in the Human Cell Strain Mayes, " Journal of the National Cancer Institute 19 (1957):867-73
11. D. von Hansemann, "Ueber asymmetrische Zellteilung in Epithelkrebsen und deren biologische Bedeutung, " Virchows Arch Path Anat Physiol Klin Med 119 (1890):299-326.
12. Henry Harris, trans. and ann., " 'Concerning the Origin of Malignant Tumours' by Theodor Boveri, " Journal of Cell Science 121 (2008):S1-S84.
13. Peter C. Nowell and David A. Hungerford, "A Minute Chromosome in Human Chronic Granulocytic Leukemia, " Science 132 (1960):1497.
14. J. H. Tjio and Theodore T. Puck, "Genetics of Somatic Mammalian Cells II:Chromosomal Constitution of Cells in Tissue Culture, " Journal of Experimental Medicine 108 (1958):261.
15. Rachel Benson Gold, "Lessons from Before Roe:Will Past Be Prologue?" Guttmacher Report on Public Policy 6, no.1 (2003):9.
16. Purdon's Pennsylvania Statutes and Consolidated Statutes, Title 18, Crimes and Offenses, Chapter 2:The Penal Code of 1939, Article VII:Offenses Against the Person, Section 718:Abortion.
17. Purdon's Pennsylvania Statutes and Consolidated Statutes, Title 18, Crimes and Offenses, Chapter 2:The Penal Code of 1939, Article VII:Offenses Against the Person, Section 719:Abortion Causing Death.
18. Commonwealth v. Zimmerman, 214 Pa. Super. 61, 251 A. 2d 819 (1969)
19. Leslie J. Reagan, When Abortion Was a Crime:Women, Medicine and Law in the United States, 1867-1973 (Berkeley and Los Angeles:University of California Press, 1997):13, 61-70.
20. Leslie J. Reagan, When Abortion Was a Crime:Women, Medicine and Law in the United States, 1867-1973 (Berkeley and Los Angeles:University of California Press, 1997):15, 132, 135.
21. Henry J. Sangmeister, "A Survey of Abortion Deaths in Philadelphia from 1931 to 1940 Inclusive, " American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 46 (1943):756-57.
22. Reagan, When Abortion Was a Crime, 15.
23. R. K. Denworth (Drinker, Biddle and Reath) to I. S. Ravdin, September 28, 1962, page 1, series UPC 1.4, box 14, file folder "Dept. of Ob/Gyn, " University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania.
25. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, "Rules Governing Requests for Therapeutic Abortion and/or Sterilization, " January 21, 1963, series UPC 1.4, box 14, file folder "Dept. of Ob/Gyn, " University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania.
26. Reagan, When Abortion Was a Crime, 204-7.
27. Hall, "Abortion in American Hospitals, " 1933.
29. Photograph of I. S. Ravdin and Dwight D. Eisenhower, UPT 50 R252, box 182, file folder 13, Isidor Schwaner Ravdin Papers, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania.
30. John M. Mitchell to I. S. Ravdin, October 29, 1952, series UPC 1.4, box 1, file folder "1952-Marriage Council of Philadelphia, Contract with University of Pennsylvania, " University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania.
31. "The Roman Catholic Church and the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, " undated, series UPC 1.4, box 2, file folder "Department of Ob-Gyn, " University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania.
32. I. S. Ravdin to Franklin Payne, July 15, 1960, series UPC 1.4, box 2, file folder "Department of Ob-Gyn, " University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania.
33. Photograph of I. S. Ravdin and Pope Pius XII, UPT 50 R252, box 182, file folder 56, Isidor Schwaner Ravdin Papers, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania.
34. I. S. Ravdin to Mrs. Roland T. Addis, December 24, 1964, series UPC 1.4, box 15, file folder "VPMA, " University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania.
35. I. S. Ravdin to Gaylord Harnwell, April 8, 1960, UPA 4, box 114, file folder 17, "Wistar Institute IV 1955-1960, " Office of the President Records, Gaylord Probasco Harnwell Administration, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania
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45. Continuously Cultured Tissue Cells and Viral Vaccines:Potential Advantages May Be Realized and Potential Hazards Obviated by Careful Planning and Monitoring:Report of a Committee on Tissue Culture Viruses and Vaccines, " Science 139 (1963):17.
46. L. Hayflick et al., "Choice of a Cell System for Vaccine Production, " Science 140 (1963):766-68.
47. World Health Organization, "Report to the Director-General, " MOH/PA/140.62, July 24, 1962, p. 5 (World Health Organization Scientific Group on the Human Diploid Cell, Geneva, July 16-18 1962).
48. World Health Organization, "Report to the Director-General, " MOH/PA/140.62, July 24, 1962, p. 18, 24. (World Health Organization Scientific Group on the Human Diploid Cell, Geneva, July 16-18 1962).
49. Hayflick et al., "Choice of a Cell System, " 768.
50. World Health Organization, "Report to the Director-General, " 19, 24.
51. World Health Organization, "Report to the Director-General, " 24.
52. Joseph S. Pagano et al., "The Response and the Lack of Spread in Swedish School Children Given an Attenuated Poliovirus Vaccine Prepared in a Human Diploid Cell Strain, " American Journal of Hygiene 79 (1964):83.
53. F. Buser et al., "Immunization with Live Attenuated Polio Virus Prepared in Human Diploid Cell Strains, with Special Reference to the WM-3 Strain, " in Proceedings, Symposium on the Characterization and Uses of Human Diploid Cell Strains (Opatija:International Association of Microbiological Societies, 1963), 386.
54. Drago Ikic et al., "Postvaccinal Reactions After Application of Poliovaccine Live, Oral Prepared in Human Diploid Cell Strains Wi-38, " Proceedings, Symposium on the Characterization and Uses of Human Diploid Cell Strains (Opatija:International Association of Microbiological Societies, 1963), 405, 406, 413.
55. Hilary Koprowski to Vre C. Mackowiak, December 11, 1963, folder "Outgoing Correspondence, " Stanley Plotkin private papers, Doylestown, PA.
Donna Gentile O'Donnell, Provider of Last Resort:The Story of the Closure of the Philadelphia General Hospital (Philadelphia:Camino Books, 2005):96.
"Ten Year Report:Philadelphia General Hospital, " October 1961, pages 1-10, collection 80-101.2("Philadelphia General Hospital, Ten Year Report, 1952-1962"), Philadelphia City Archive.
Joseph S. Pagano, Stanley A. Plotkin, and Donald Cornely, "The Response of Premature Infants to Infection with Type 3 Attenuated Poliovirus, " Journal of Pediatrics 65, no.2 (1964):165-75.
Ruth McClain, St. Vincent's Hospital for Women and Children:Report of Inspection and Evaluation, Department of Public Welfare of the Common-wealth of Pennsylvania, April 1966, p. 3, Cardinal Krol Papers, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center.
Nicholas Wade, "Division of Biologics Standards:The Boat That Never Rocked, " Science 175 (1972):1226.

第2部 風疹

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5. William George Maton, "Some Account of a Rash Liable to Be Mistaken for Scarlatina, " Medical Transactions Published by the College of Physicians of London 5 (1815):149-65.
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8. Alfred D. Heggie and Frederick C. Robbins, "Natural Rubella Acquired After Birth:Clinical Features and Complications, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 118 (1969):15.
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10. Burgess, "Gregg's Rubella Legacy, " 355.
11. Gregg, "Congenital Cataract, " 42.
12. Gregg, "Congenital Cataract, " 35-46.
13. C. Swan et al., "Congenital Defects in Infants Following Infectious Diseases During Pregnancy:With Special Attention to the Relationship Between German Measles and Cataract, Deaf-Mutism, Heart Disease and Microcephaly, and to the Period of Pregnancy in Which Occurrence of Rubella Is Followed by Congenital Abnormalities, " Medical Journal of Australia 2 (1943):201-10.
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18. John Fry, J. B. Dillane, and Lionel Fry, "Rubella, 1962, " British Medical Journal 2, no.5308 (1962):833-34.
19. Elizabeth Miller, "Rubella in the United Kingdom, " Epidemiology and Infection 107 (1991):34
20. "News in Brief, " Times (London), Thursday, March 15, 1962, 6.
21. "German Measles at Eton, " Times (London), Tuesday, March 27, 1962, 16.
22. Eric Todd, "Shackleton's Old Tricks Serve Him Well Against Yorkshire:Wilson Consoles the Partisans, " Guardian, June 28, 1962, 10.
23. A Mother, "Difficult Duty, " Guardian, August 9, 1963, 6.
24. Thomas H. Weller and Franklin A. Neva, "Propagation in Tissue Culture of Cytopathic Agents from Patients with Rubella-Like Illness, " Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 111 (October 1962):216-25.
25. Paul D. Parkman, Edward L. Buescher, and Malcolm S. Artenstein, "Recovery of Rubella Virus from Army Recruits, " Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 111 (1962):225-30.
26. Lee Plotkin, Anecdotes of My Life, (Lee Plotkin, Stanley Plotkin, and Brenda Magalaner, 1986), 1986, 38-45, 57-61, 66-71.
27. Stanley A. Plotkin, "The Late Sequelae of Arrowsmith, " Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 21 (2002):807-8.
28. Stanley A. Plotkin, "The Late Sequelae of Arrowsmith, " Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 21 (2002):808.
29. "Memorandum to Editors Concerning Press, Radio and Television Conference, " June 15, 1959, UPA 4, box 114, file folder "Lederle Laboratories National Drug Company (1955-1960), " Office of the President Records, Gaylord P. Harnwell Admin. 1955-1960, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania.
30. Stanley A. Plotkin, John A. Dudgeon, and A. Melvin Ramsay, "Laboratory Studies on Rubella and the Rubella Syndrome, " British Medical Journal 2, no.5368 (1963):1299.
31. Stanley A. Plotkin, John A. Dudgeon, and A. Melvin Ramsay, "Laboratory Studies on Rubella and the Rubella Syndrome, " British Medical Journal 2, no.5368 (1963):1299.
32. J. A. Dudgeon, N. R. Butler, and Stanley A. Plotkin, "Further Serological Studies on the Rubella Syndrome, " British Medical Journal 2, no.5402 (1964):159-60.
33. L. S. Oshiro, N. J. Schmidt, and E. H. Lennette, "Electron Microscopic Studies of Rubella Virus, " Journal of General Virology 5 (1969):205.
34. Robert S. Duszak, "Congenital Rubella Syndrome-Major Review, " Optometry 80 (2009):38-39
35. William S. Webster, "Teratogen Update:Congenital Rubella, " Teratology 58 (1998):16, http://teratology.org/updates/58pg13.pdf
36. Joseph A. Bellanti et al., "Congenital Rubella:Clinicopathologic, Virologic, and Immunologic Studies, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 110 (1965):465, 470
37. Webster, "Teratogen Update, " 17-20.
38. Stanley A. Plotkin and Antti Vaheri, "Human Fibroblasts Infected with Rubella Produce a Growth Inhibitor, " Science 156 (1967):659-61.
39. W. E. Rawls, J. Desmyter, and J. L. Melnick, "Virus Carrier Cells and Virus Free Cells in Fetal Rubella, " Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 129 (1968):477-83
40. W. Dimech et al., "Evaluation of Three Immunoassays Used for Detection of Anti-Rubella Virus Immunoglobulin M Antibodies, " Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 12, no.9 (September 2005):1104-8, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1235794/.
41. Gisella Enders et al., "Outcome of Confirmed Periconceptual Maternal Rubella, " Lancet 331, no.8600 (1988):1445-47 (originally published as vol.1, no.8600).
42. M. M. Desmond, "Congenital Rubella Encephalitis, Course and Early Sequelae, " Journal of Pediatrics 71, no.3 (1967):311-31.
43. Jill M. Forrest, Margaret A. Menser, and J. A. Burgess, "High Frequency of Diabetes Mellitus in Young Adults with Congenital Rubella, " Lancet 297, no.7720 (1971):332-34.
44. John F. O'Neill, "The Ocular Manifestations of Congenital Infection:A Study of the Early Effect and Long-Term Outcome of Maternally Transmitted Rubella and Toxoplasmosis, " Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society 96 (1998):858-68.
45. Stephen A. Winchester et al., "Persistent Intraocular Rubella Infection in a Patient with Fuchs' Uveitis and Congenital Rubella Syndrome, " Journal of Clinical Microbiology 51, no.5 (2013):1622-24, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ PMC3647901/.
46. Margaret A. Menser, Lorimer Dods, and J. D. Harley, "A Twenty-five-Year Follow-up of Congenital Rubella, " Lancet 290, no.7530 (1967):1347-50.
47. Miller, "Rubella in the United Kingdom, " 32
48. Stanley Plotkin to Alistair Dudgeon, November 4, 1963, folder, "Correspondence-out, October 1963-December 1964, " Stanley Plotkin private papers, Doylestown, PA.
Brynn E. Berger, Ann Marie Navar-Boggan, and Saad B. Omer, "Congenital Rubella Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder Prevented by Rubella Vaccination:United States, 2001-2010, " BMC Public Health 11 (2011):340, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3123590/#B7.
C. S. Peckham, "Congenital Rubella in the United Kingdom Before 1970:The Prevaccine Era, " Reviews of Infectious Diseases 7 (supp.1) (1985):S11-21.
Van Hung Pham et al., "Rubella Epidemic in Vietnam:Characteristic of Rubella Virus Genes from Pregnant Women and Their Fetuses/Newborns with Con-genital Rubella Syndrome, " Journal of Clinical Virology 57 (2013):152.
J. E. Banatvala and D.W.G. Brown, "Seminar:Rubella, " Lancet 363 (2004):1129.
Thong Van Nguyen, Van Hung Pham, and Kenji Abe, "Pathogenesis of Congenital Rubella Infection in Human Fetuses:Viral Infection in the Ciliary Body Could Play an Important Role in Cataractogenesis, " EBioMedicine 2 (2015):59-60.
Webster "Teratogen Update, " 21.
John J. Witte et al., "Epidemiology of Rubella, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 118 (1969):107.
P.220 掲載の参考文献
1. William S. Webster, "Teratogen Update:Congenital Rubella, " Teratology 58 (1998):13, http://teratology.org/updates/58pg13.pdf.
2. Stanley A. Plotkin memo to Hilary Koprowski, "Reference:Christmas Party, " December 11, 1963, folder "Correspondence-out, October 1963-December 1964, " Stanley Plotkin private papers, Doylestown, PA.
3. Vincent Cristofalo, "Profile in Gerontology:Leonard Hayflick, PhD, " Contemporary Gerontology 9, no.3(2003):83.
4. Eugene B. Buynak et al., "Live Attenuated Rubella Virus Vaccines Prepared in Duck Embryo Cell Culture, I:Development and Clinical Testing, " Journal of the American Medical Association 204, no.3 (1968):195.
5. David J. Rothman, Strangers at the Bedside:A History of How Law and Bioethics Transformed Medical Decision Making (New York:Aldine de Gruyter, 1991, 2003), 40, 51-59. 『医療倫理の夜明け-臓器移植・延命治療・死ぬ権利をめぐって』(デイヴィッド・ロスマン作, 酒井忠昭訳, 晶文社, 2000年)
6. "Wistar Institute Comparative Balance Sheets as of 4/30/66, " p. 4, UPT 50 R252, box 68, file folder 14, "Wistar Institute, 1966, " Isidor Schwaner Ravdin Papers, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania
7. Alan D. Lourie to Thomas Norton, "Discoveries or Inventions Developed Under Public Health Service Research Grants and Awards, " March 13, 1968, p. 3, folder "SKF Correspondence 1968, " Stanley Plotkin Private papers, Doylestown, PA.
8. Stanley Plotkin to Alistair Dudgeon, November 4, 1963, folder "Correspondence-Out, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
9. Wolfgang Saxon, "Harry Martin Meyer Jr., 72
10. Paul D. Parkman et al., "Attenuated Rubella Virus I.:Development and Laboratory Characterization, " New England Journal of Medicine 275 (1966):569-74
11. Stanley A. Plotkin, Andre Boue and Joelle G. Boue, "The In Vitro Growth of Rubella Virus in Human Embryo Cells, " American Journal of Epidemiology 81, no.1 (1965):71-85
12. Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Managers, the Wistar Institute, June 22, 1964.
13. Communicable Disease Center, "Rubella, " Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 13, no.12 (1964):93-101.
14. "Surveillance Summary:Rubella-United States, " Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 19, no.34 (1970):335
15. Stanley Plotkin, index cards cataloging infants born with congenital rubella syndrome, Stanley Plotkin private papers.
16. Stanley Plotkin, "List of Patients, " file folder "Rubella Patients, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
17. J. M. Lindquist et al., "Congenital Rubella Syndrome as a Systemic Infection:Studies of Affected Infants Born in Philadelphia, USA, " British Medical Journal 2 (1965):1402.
18. Stanley A. Plotkin, "Virologic Assistance in the Management of German Measles in Pregnancy, " Journal of the American Medical Association 190 (1964):268.
19. Name withheld, letter to Stanley Plotkin, April 2, 1964, folder "Correspondence-in, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
20. Plotkin, "Virologic Assistance, " 266-67.
21. Plotkin, "Virologic Assistance, " 267.
22. R. Beaver, letter to the editor, and J. D. Pryce, letter to the editor (both under the heading "Rubella and Termination of Pregnancy"), British Medical Journal 2, no.5416 (October 24, 1964):1075-76.
23. Pryce, letter to the editor, 1076.
24. Stanley A. Plotkin, "Rubella and Termination of Pregnancy" (unpublished letter to the editor of the British Medical Journal), November 20, 1964, folder "Correspondence-out, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
26. Minutes, "Meeting of the Committee on Congenital Malformations, American Academy of Pediatrics, " May 8, 1965, Philadelphia, file folder "Correspondence-in, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
27. Robert E. Hall, "Abortion in American Hospitals, " American Journal of Public Health 57, no.11 (1967):1934.
28. Robert E. Hall, "Therapeutic Abortion, Sterilization, and Contraception, " American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 91, no.4 (1965):523.
29. Leslie J. Reagan, Dangerous Pregnancies:Mothers, Disabilities, and Abortion in Modern America (Berkeley and Los Angeles:University of California Press, 2010), 73-74.
30. Leslie J. Reagan, Dangerous Pregnancies:Mothers, Disabilities, and Abortion in Modern America (Berkeley and Los Angeles:University of California Press, 2010), 74-75.
31. Leslie J. Reagan, Dangerous Pregnancies:Mothers, Disabilities, and Abortion in Modern America (Berkeley and Los Angeles:University of California Press, 2010), 73.
32. Stanley Plotkin to Dr. Henry Fetterman, February 5, 1965, folder "Correspondence-out, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
33. Stanley Plotkin to Dr. Leonard M. Popowich, October 13, 1964, folder "Correspondence-out, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
34. Alfred D. Heggie and Frederick C. Robbins, "Natural Rubella Acquired After Birth:Clinical Features and Complications, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 118 (1969):15.
35. National Communicable Disease Center, "Estimated Morbidity Associated with the 1964-1965 U.S. Rubella Epidemic, " in Rubella Surveillance Report No.1 (Washington, DC:U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, June 1969), 12.
36. National Communicable Disease Center, "Preface" in Rubella Surveillance Report No.1 (Washington, DC:U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, June 1969), 1.
37. Stanley Plotkin to Franklin Payne (head, Department of Pediatrics, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania), January 23, 1964, folder "Correspondence-out, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
38. Stanley Plotkin to Dr. Lester Eisenberg (Department of Obstetrics, Cherry Hill Hospital), November 24, 1964, folder "Correspondence-out, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
39. Stanley Plotkin to Dr. Lester Eisenberg (Department of Obstetrics, Cherry Hill Hospital), November 24, 1964, folder "Correspondence-out, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
40. Stanley A. Plotkin, David Cornfeld, and Theodore H. Ingalls, "Studies of Immunization with Living Rubella Virus:Trials in Children of a Strain Cultured from an Aborted Fetus, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 110 (1965):382.
"Wistar Institute Comparative Balance Sheets as of 10/31/67, " p. 4, UPT 50 R252, box 68, file folder 12, "Wistar Institute, 1966-1967, " Isidor Schwaner Ravdin Papers, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania
Robert Dechert, "Memorandum of RD's Discussion with Dr. Thomas Norton and Dr. Stanley Plotkin About the Work of the Latter, " p. 2, January 12, 1968, folder "DBS, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
Helped Create Rubella Vaccine, " New York Times, August 25, 2001, www.nytimes.com/2001/08/25/us/harry-martinmeyer-jr-72-helped-create-rubella-vaccine.html.
Harry M. Meyer Jr, Paul D. Parkman, and Theodore C. Panos, "Attenuated Rubella Virus II:Production of an Experimental Live-Virus Vaccine and Clinical Trial, " New England Journal of Medicine 275, no.11 (1966):575.
Stanley A. Plotkin and Antti Vaheri, "Human Fibroblasts Infected with Rubella Produce a Growth Inhibitor, " Science 156 (1967):659-61.
J. J. Witte et al., "Epidemiology of Rubella, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 118, no.1 (July 1969):107-11.
P.238 掲載の参考文献
1. H. Koprowski, "Vaccines Against Rabies:Present and Future, " First International Conference on Vaccines Against Viral and Rickettsial Diseases of Man:Papers Present-ed and Discussions Held in Washington, D.C., November 7-11, 1966 (Washington, DC:Pan American Health Organization Scientific Publication no.147, May 1967), 488.
2. Roger Vaughan, Listen to the Music:The Life of Hilary Koprowski (New York:Springer-Verlag, 2000), 67.
3. Deborah J. Briggs, "Human Rabies Vaccines, " in Rabies, 2nd ed., ed. Alan C. Jackson and William H. Wunner (London:Academic Press, 2007), 506.
4. World Health Organization, WHO Expert Consultation on Rabies:Second Report, WHO Technical Report Series, no.982 (Geneva:World Health Organization 2013), 8.
5. W. Suraweera et al., "Deaths from Symptomatically Identifiable Furious Rabies in India:A Nationally Representative Mortality Survey, " PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 6, no.10 (2012):e1847
6. George M. Baer, ed., The Natural History of Rabies, 2nd ed. (Boca Raton, FL:CRC, 1991):523.
7. George M. Baer, ed., The Natural History of Rabies, 2nd ed. (Boca Raton, FL:CRC, 1991):524.
8. George M. Baer, ed., The Natural History of Rabies, 2nd ed. (Boca Raton, FL:CRC, 1991):524.
9. Elisabeth Emerson, Public Health Is People:A History of the Minnesota Department of Health from 1949 to 1999 (St. Paul:Minnesota Department of Health, 2002), 35, and 61-62, www.health.state.mn.us/library/publichealthispeople19491999.html.
10. Communicable Disease Center, "Annual Supplement:Summary 1965, " Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 14, no.53 (1966):48.
11. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, National Office of Vital Statistics, "Annual Supplement:Reported Incidence of Notifiable Diseases in the United States, 1952, " Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1, no.54 (1953):7.
12. Louis Pasteur, "Methode pour Prevenir la Rage Apres Morsure, " Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences 101:765-74.
13. Madureira Para, "An Outbreak of Post-vaccinal Rabies (Rage de Laboratoire) in Fortaleza, Brazil, in 1960:Residual Fixed Virus as the Etiological Agent, " Bulletin of the World Health Organization 33 (1965):177-82, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5294589.
14. Madureira Para, "An Outbreak of Post-vaccinal Rabies (Rage de Laboratoire) in Fortaleza, Brazil, in 1960:Residual Fixed Virus as the Etiological Agent, " Bulletin of the World Health Organization 33 (1965):181, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5294589.
15. Franklin B. Peck Jr., Horace M. Powell, and Clyde G. Culbertson, "Duck Embryo Rabies Vaccine:Study of Fixed Virus Vaccine Grown in Embryonated Duck Eggs and Killed with Beta-Propiolactone (BPL), " Journal of the American Medical Association 162, no.15 (1956):1373
16. Franklin B. Peck Jr., Horace M. Powell, and Clyde G. Culbertson, "New Antirabies Vaccine for Human Use, " Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 45, no.5 (1955):679-83.
17. Peck, Powell, and Culbertson, "Duck Embryo Rabies Vaccine, " 1373.
18. Koprowski, "Vaccines Against Rabies, " 489.
19. Baer, Natural History of Rabies, 418.
20. Communicable Disease Center, "Annual Supplement:Summary 1965, " Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 14, no.53 (1966):5.
21. Communicable Disease Center, "Annual Supplement:Summary 1965, " Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 14, no.53 (1966):49.
22. R. E. Kissling, "Growth of Rabies Virus in Non-nervous Tissue Culture, " Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 98, no.2 (June 1958):223-25.
23. Tadeusz J. Wiktor, Stanley A. Plotkin, and Hilary Koprowski, "Development and Clinical Trials of the New Human Rabies Vaccine of Tissue Culture (Human Diploid Cell) Origin, " Developments in Biological Standardization 40 (1978):4.
24. Vaughan, Listen to the Music, 121.
25. T. J. Wiktor, M. V. Fernandes, and H. Koprowski, "Cultivation of Rabies Virus in Human Diploid Cell Strain WI-38, " Journal of Immunology 93 (September 1964):354-55.
26. T. J. Wiktor, M. V. Fernandes, and H. Koprowski, "Potential Use of Human Diploid Cell Strains for Rabies Vaccine, " Proceedings:Symposium on the Characterization and Uses of Human Diploid Cell Strains:Opatija 1963 (no location given:Permanent Section on Microbiological Standardization, International Association of Microbiological Societies, 1963):354-56.
27. John A. Anderson, Frank T. Daly Jr., and Jack C. Kidd, "Human Rabies After Anti-serum and Vaccine Postexposure Treatment:Case Report and Review, " Annals of Internal Medicine 64, no.6 (1966):1297-1302.
28. Basil Rice, "Rabies Threat Worsens, " Kingsport (TN) Times-News, May 9, 1964, 2.
29. Basil Rice, "Rabies Threat Worsens, " Kingsport (TN) Times-News, May 9, 1964, 2.
30. Richard R. Leger, "Alarm over Rabies:Disease Infects Wildlife in More Areas, Posing Threat to Vacationers; Rabid Foxes Terrorize County in Tennessee; Convicts May Test New Type of Vaccine; Skunks and Bats Are Carriers, " Wall Street Journal, May 19, 1965, 1.
31. Communicable Disease Center, "Rabies in Animals and Man-1964:Annual Surveillance Summary, " Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 14, no.31 (1965):266.
32. Leger, "Alarm over Rabies."
33. Leger, "Alarm over Rabies."
34. Leger, "Alarm over Rabies."
35. Anderson, Daly, and Kidd, "Human Rabies After Antiserum, " 1300-1301.
36. Communicable Disease Center, "Human Rabies:Minnesota, " Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 13, no.38 (1964):330
37. Communicable Disease Center, "Rabies in Animals and Man, " 269.
38. Communicable Disease Center, "Epidemiologic Notes and Reports:Human Rabies Death-South Dakota, " Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 15, no.38 (1966):3225-26.
39. Leger, "Alarm over Rabies"
40. Communicable Disease Center, "Human Rabies Death:West Virginia, " Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 14, no.23 (1965):195.
41. Wiktor, Fernandes, and Koprowski, "Cultivation of Rabies Virus, " 353-60.
42. Wiktor, Plotkin, and Koprowski, "Development and Clinical Trials, " 5.
43. T. J. Wiktor and H. Koprowski, "Successful Immunization of Primates with Rabies Vaccine Prepared in Human Diploid Cell Strain WI-38, " Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 118 (1965):1069-73.
44. Mario V. Fernandes, Hilary Koprowski, and Tadeusz J. Wiktor, "Method of Producing Rabies Vaccine, " U.S. Patent 3,397,267, filed September 21, 1964, and issued August 13, 1968, http://www.google.com/patents/US3397267.
45. David Lansing, director of product acquisition and licensing, Research Corporation, to Thomas W. Norton, May 3, 1966, folder "SKF Correspondence 1968, " Stanley Plotkin private papers, Doylestown, PA.
M. K. Sudarshan, "Assessing Burden of Rabies in India:WHO-Sponsored National Multi-Centric Rabies Survey, " Association for the Prevention and Control of Rabies in India Journal 6 (May 2004):44-45.
Herve Bazin, "Pasteur and the Birth of Vaccines Made in the Laboratory, " in History of Vaccine Development, ed. Stanley A. Plotkin (New York:Springer Science + Business Media, 2011), 39-41.
Herve Bourhy, Annick Perrot, and Jean-Marc Cavaillon, "Rabies, " in:Andrew W. Artenstein, ed., Vaccines:A Biography (New York:Springer Science + Business Media, 2010), 84.
Gary Sprick obituary, Rochester (MN) Post-Bulletin, September 2, 1964, www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=114649224.
Centers for Disease Control, "Recommendation of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP):Rabies Prevention, " Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 29, no.3 (1980):267.
P.255 掲載の参考文献
1. Claude Bernard, An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine, Henry Copley Greene 訳 (New York:Dover, 1957), 101 (originally published in 1865). 『実験医学序説』(クロード・ベルナール作, 三浦岱栄訳, 岩波書店, 1970年)
2. Stanley Plotkin, "Protocol for Rubella Study, " November 1, 1963, folder "St. Vincent’s, " Stanley Plotkin private papers, Doylestown, PA. Rosa Hoflacher
3. Butler, "For Dependent Children, " 8.
4. Ruth McClain, "St. Vincent's Hospital for Women and Children:Report of Inspection and Evaluation, " Department of Public Welfare of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, April 1966, p. 5, Cardinal Krol Papers, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center.
5. Butler, "For Dependent Children, " 8.
9. "Court's Abortion Rulings Termed 'Tragic' by Cardinal, Bishops, Pro-life Spokesmen, " Catholic Standard and Times (Philadelphia), January 25, 1973, 1. See also John Cardinal Krol, "Statement on Abortion:A Statement Issued by the President of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops, " January 22, 1973, www.priestsforlife.org/magisterium/bishops/73-01-22statementonabortionnccb.htm (accessed February 1, 2016).
10. Stanley A. Plotkin, David Cornfeld, and Theodore H. Ingalls, "Studies of Immunization with Living Rubella Virus:Trials in Children of a Strain Cultured from an Aborted Fetus, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 110 (1965):382.
11. Stanley A. Plotkin to Dr. Tepper (Division of Biologics Standards, National Institutes of Health), May 15, 1964, folder "DBS, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
12. Roderick Murray (director, Division of Biologics Standards) to Stanley Plotkin, May 21, 1964, p. 1, folder "DBS, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
13. Roderick Murray (director, Division of Biologics Standards) to Stanley Plotkin, May 21, 1964, p. 2, folder "DBS, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
14. Murray to Plotkin, May 21, 1964.
17. Stanley A. Plotkin to Theodore Ingalls, May 8, 1964, file folder "St. Vincent's, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
18. Y. Hiro and S. Tasaka, "Die roetheln sind eine Viruskrankheit, " Mschr Kinderheilk 76 (1938):328-32.
19. S. Krugman et al., "Studies on Rubella Immunization I:Demonstration of Rubella Without Rash, " Journal of the American Medical Association 151, no.4 (1953):285-88.
20. John L. Sever et al., "Rubella Virus, " Journal of the American Medical Association 162, no.6 (1962):663-71.
22. Plotkin, Cornfeld, and Ingalls, "Studies of Immunization, " 382.
23. Plotkin, Cornfeld, and Ingalls, "Studies of Immunization, " 382.
24. Plotkin, Cornfeld, and Ingalls, "Studies of Immunization, " 382.
25. Plotkin, Cornfeld, and Ingalls, "Studies of Immunization, " 382.
26. Plotkin, Cornfeld, and Ingalls, "Studies of Immunization, " 383-84.
27. Plotkin, Cornfeld, and Ingalls, "Studies of Immunization, " 387-88.
29. J. C. McDonald, "Gamma-Globulin for Prevention of Rubella in Pregnancy, " British Medical Journal 2, no.5354 (1963):416.
30. J. C. McDonald, "Gamma-Globulin for Prevention of Rubella in Pregnancy, " British Medical Journal 2, no.5354 (1963):418.
32. Harold G. Scheie et al., "Congenital Rubella Cataracts:Surgical Results and Virus Recovery from Intraocular Tissue, " Archives of Ophthalmology 77 (1967):444.
34. John F. O'Neill, "The Ocular Manifestations of Congenital Infection:A Study of the Early Effect and Long-Term Outcome of Maternally Transmitted Rubella and Toxoplasmosis, " Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society 96 (1998):839, 867.
35. John F. O'Neill, "The Ocular Manifestations of Congenital Infection:A Study of the Early Effect and Long-Term Outcome of Maternally Transmitted Rubella and Toxoplasmosis, " Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society 96 (1998):867.
37. O'Neill, "Ocular Manifestations, " 834
38. Norman McAlister Gregg, "Congenital Cataract Following German Measles in the Mother, " Transactions of the Ophthalmological Society of Australia 3 (1941):39.
39. M. E. Oster, T. Riehle-Colarusso, and A. Correa, "An Update on Cardiovascular Mal-formations in Congenital Rubella Syndrome, " Birth Defects Research Part A:Clinical and Molecular Teratology 88, no.1 (2010):1-8.
40. S. Chess, P. Fernandez, and S. Korn, "Behavioral Consequences of Congenital Rubella, " Journal of Pediatrics 93, no.4 (1978):699-703
41. C. J. Priebe Jr., J. A. Holahan, and P. R. Ziring, "Abnormalities of the Vas Deferens and Epidiymis in Cryptorchid Boys with Congenital Rubella, " Journal of Pediatric Surgery 14, no.6 (1979):834-38.
Jim Butler, "For Dependent Children, a 'Home' Is Not a Home, " Catholic Standard and Times (Philadelphia), January 19, 1968, 8.
"Continuously Cultured Tissue Cells and Viral Vaccines:Potential Advantages May Be Realized and Potential Hazards Obviated by Careful Planning and Monitoring:Report of a Committee on Tissue Culture Viruses and Vaccines, " Science 139 (1963):15-20.
Stanley A. Plotkin to George A. Jervis, November 6, 1964, file folder "Correspondenceout, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
Scheie et al., "Congenital Rubella Cataracts, " 442.
William S. Webster, "Teratogen Update:Congenital Rubella, " Teratology 58 (1998):20
Stella Chess, "Autism in Children with Congenital Rubella, " Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia 1, no.1 (1971):33.
P.276 掲載の参考文献
1. Stanley A. Plotkin, "History of Rubella Vaccines and the Recent History of Cell Culture, " in Vaccinia, Vaccination and Vaccinology:Jenner, Pasteur and Their Successors, S. Plotkin and B. Fantini, eds. (Paris:Elsevier, 1996), 275.
10. Harry M. Meyer Jr., Paul D. Parkman, and Theodore C. Panos, "Attenuated Rubella Virus II:Production of an Experimental Live-Virus Vaccine and Clinical Trial, " New England Journal of Medicine 275, no.11 (1966):575.
11. Leavitt, "Dr. Paul Parkman Interview, " 19.
12. Rothman, Strangers at the Bedside, 56. 『医療倫理の夜明け-臓器移植・延命治療・死ぬ権利をめぐって』(デイヴィッド・ロスマン作, 酒井忠昭訳, 晶文社, 2000年)
13. Leavitt, "Dr. Paul Parkman Interview, " 21-22.
14. Meyer, Parkman, and Panos, "Attenuated Rubella Virus II, " 575-80.
16. "New Patients Arrive Monday, " Hamburg Item, January 7, 1960
18. Jasper G. Chen See to Benjamin P. Clark, February 1, 1967, folder "Hamburg-I, " Stanley Plotkin private papers, Doylestown, PA.
19. Jasper G. Chen See to Benjamin P. Clark, October 30, 1967, folder "Hamburg-I, " Stanley Plotkin private papers, Doylestown, PA.
20. "Patients Move Around Like Robots:Retarded at Hamburg State School Are Kept Heavily Drugged According to Superintendent, " Observer-Reporter (Washington, PA), April 20, 1973, p. A13.
21. Stanley Plotkin to Benjamin Clark, March 25, 1968, folder "Hamburg IX, " Stanley Plotkin private papers
22. Stanley A. Plotkin et al., "A New Attenuated Rubella Virus Grown In Human Fibro-blasts:Evidence For Reduced Nasopharyngeal Excretion, " American Journal of Epidemiology 86 (1967):469.
23. Henry K. Beecher, "Ethics and Clinical Research, " New England Journal of Medicine 274, no.24 (1966):1354-60, www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJM196606162742405.
24. Henry K. Beecher, "Ethics and Clinical Research, " New England Journal of Medicine 274, no.24 (1966):1355. www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJM196606162742405.
25. Rothman, Strangers at the Bedside, 273. 『医療倫理の夜明け-臓器移植・延命治療・死ぬ権利をめぐって』(デイヴィッド・ロスマン作, 酒井忠昭訳, 晶文社, 2000年)
26. Captain Robert Chamovitz et al., "Prevention of Rheumatic Fever by Treatment of Previous Streptococcal Infections I:Evaluation of Benzathine Penicillin G, " New England Journal of Medicine 251, no.12 (1954):466-71.
27. Saul Krugman et al., "Infectious Hepatitis:Detection of Virus During the Incubation Period and in Clinically Inapparent Infection, " New England Journal of Medicine 261 (1959):729-34.
28. Elinor Langer, "Human Experimentation:Cancer Studies at Sloan-Kettering Stir Public Debate on Medical Ethics, " Science 143 (1964):552.
29. Rothman, Strangers at the Bedside, 87-90. 『医療倫理の夜明け-臓器移植・延命治療・死ぬ権利をめぐって』(デイヴィッド・ロスマン作, 酒井忠昭訳, 晶文社, 2000年)
30. William H. Stewart, "Surgeon General's Directives on Human Experimentation, " PPO #129 (Bethesda, MD:U.S. Public Health Service Division of Research Grants, revised July l, 1966).
31. Rot4hman, Strangers at the Bedside, 38『医療倫理の夜明け-臓器移植・延命治療・死ぬ権利をめぐって』(デイヴィッド・ロスマン作, 酒井忠昭訳, 晶文社, 2000年)
32. Stanley Plotkin to Benjamin Clark, July 25, 1966, folder "Hamburg-I, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
33. Benjamin Clark to Stanley Plotkin, July 27, 1966, folder "Hamburg-I;" single sheet titled "1st group:8-1 to 9-13, " folder "Hamburg-I, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
35. Benjamin Clark to Stanley Plotkin, May 29, 1968, folder "Hamburg-I, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
36. Stanley A. Plotkin et al., "A New Attenuated Rubella Virus, " 468-77.
37. James L. Bittle et al., "Results of Testing Production Lots of Oral Poliovirus Vaccine, " Journal of Infectious Diseases 116, no.2 (1966):215-20.
38. Plotkin et al., "New Attenuated Rubella Virus, " 473.
39. Werner Slenczka and Hans Dieter Klenk, "Forty Years of Marburg Virus, " Journal of Infectious Diseases 196, supp. 2 (2007):S133.
40. Werner Slenczka and Hans Dieter Klenk, "Forty Years of Marburg Virus, " Journal of Infectious Diseases 196, supp. 2 (2007):S133.
41. Werner Slenczka and Hans Dieter Klenk, "Forty Years of Marburg Virus, " Journal of Infectious Diseases 196, supp. 2 (2007):S131.
42. Werner Slenczka and Hans Dieter Klenk, "Forty Years of Marburg Virus, " Journal of Infectious Diseases 196, supp. 2 (2007):S131.
43. Werner Slenczka and Hans Dieter Klenk, "Forty Years of Marburg Virus, " Journal of Infectious Diseases 196, supp. 2 (2007):S131.
44. K. Todorovitch, M. Mocitch, and R. Klasnja, "Clinical Picture of Two Patients Infected by the Marburg Vervet Virus, " in Marburg Virus Disease, Gustav Adolf Martini and Rudolf Siegert, eds. (Berlin and Heidelberg:Springer-Verlag, 1971), 19.
45. G. A. Martini, "Marburg Virus Disease:Clinical Syndrome, " in Martini and Siegert, Marburg Virus Disease, 1.
46. G. A. Martini, "Marburg Virus Disease:Clinical Syndrome, " in Martini and Siegert, Marburg Virus Disease, 2.
47. G. A. Martini, "Marburg Virus Disease:Clinical Syndrome, " in Martini and Siegert, Marburg Virus Disease, 2.
48. P. Gedigk, H. Bechtelsheimer, and G. Korb, "Pathologic Anatomy of Marburg Virus Disease, " in Martini and Siegert, Marburg Virus Disease, 50.
49. Richard Preston, The Hot Zone (New York:Anchor Books, 1994), 38. 『ホット・ゾーン』(リチャード・プレストン作, 高見浩訳, 飛鳥新社, 1994年など)
50. Slenczka and Klenk, "Forty Years of Marburg Virus, " S131-32
51. C. E. Gordon Smith et al., "Fatal Human Disease from Vervet Monkeys, " Lancet 290, no.7526 (1967):1119.
52. Richard Lyons, "Diseases Carried by Pets Increase, " New York Times, October 26, 1967, p. 24
53. Preston, Hot Zone, 40-42. 『ホット・ゾーン』(リチャード・プレストン作, 高見浩訳, 飛鳥新社, 1994年)
54. Slenczka and Klenk, "Forty Years of Marburg Virus, " S134.
55. Conference on Cell Cultures for Virus Vaccine Production, 474.
56. Conference on Cell Cultures for Virus Vaccine Production, 474-75
2 . Eugene Buynak et al., "Live Attenuated Rubella Virus Vaccines Prepared in Duck Embryo Cell Culture, " Journal of the American Medical Association 204, no.3 (1968):196.
3 . David J. Rothman, Strangers at the Bedside:A History of How Law and Bioethics Transformed Medical Decision Making (New York:de Gruyter, 1991, 2003), 64. 『医療倫理の夜明け-臓器移植・延命治療・死ぬ権利をめぐって』(デイヴィッド・ロスマン作, 酒井忠昭訳, 晶文社, 2000年)
4 . Leslie J. Reagan, Dangerous Pregnancies:Mothers, Disabilities, and Abortion in Mod-ern America (Berkeley and Los Angeles:University of California Press, 2010), 63-64.
7 . Reagan, Dangerous Pregnancies, 181.
9 . Sarah Leavitt, "Dr. Paul Parkman Interview, " June 7, 2005, p. 20, Office of NIH Oral History Program, National Institutes of Health.
"Local T-B Hospital Changed by Law to Child Welfare, " Hamburg Item, December 3, 1959, p.1.
Dr. Ross, memo to Mr. Zernik, October 6, 1967, file folder "Vaccine Development Board, " Stanley Plotkin private papers, Doylestown, PA.
Lawrence Corey, "Marburg Virus Disease, " in chapter 207, "Rabies and Other Rhabdoviruses, " in Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine Tenth Edition (New York:McGraw-Hill, 1983), 1139. 『ハリソン内科学 第5版』(福井次矢・黒川清監修, メディカル・サイエンス・インターナショナル, 2017年)
U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare Public Health Service, National Cancer Institute Monograph December 29, 1968, Cell Cultures for Virus Vaccine Production, 474
Leonard Hayflick, "Human Virus Vaccines:Why Monkey Cells?, " Science 176 (1972):813.
P.296 掲載の参考文献
1. Jacob Bronowski, "The Disestablishment of Science, " Encounter, July 1971, 15.
2. "Wistar Institute Comparative Balance Sheets as of October 31, 1967, " p. 4, UPT 50 R252, box 68, file folder 12, Isidor Schwaner Ravdin Collection, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania.
3. Stanley Plotkin to Benjamin Clark, December 5, 1966, folder "Hamburg-I, " Stanley Plotkin private papers, Doylestown, PA.
4. Earl Beck (scientist-administrator, Vaccine Development Branch, NIAID) to Stanley Plotkin, November 21, 1967, folder "DBS, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
5. Daniel Mullally to Hilary Koprowski, November 27, 1967, folder "Vaccine Development Board, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
6. Robert J. Ferlauto (director, Research-Microbiology, Smith, Kline & French Laboratories) to Stanley Plotkin, December 1, 1967, folder "SKF-Rubella, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
8. Benjamin Clark to Stanley Plotkin, December 13, 1966, folder "Hamburg-I, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
9. Lois Colley, R.N. (director of nursing), memo to Dr. Clark (superintendent, Hamburg State School and Hospital), "Dr. Plotkin's Letter of June 15, 1967, Received Yesterday, " June 16, 1967, folder "Rubella, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
10. Benjamin Clark to Stanley Plotkin, June 21, 1967, folder "Hamburg-VI, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
11. Stanley Plotkin to Miss Lois Colley, July 10, 1967, folder "Hamburg-VI, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
12. Bernard Frankel to Roderick Murray, January 10, 1968, folder "DBS, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
13. Stanley Plotkin to Theodore Ingalls (Epidemiologic Study Center, Framingham, Mass.), January 10, 1968, folder "DBS, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
14. Stanley Plotkin to Robert Dechert (Dechert, Price & Rhoads), January 17, 1968, folder "DBS, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
15. Paul D. Parkman et al., "Attenuated Rubella Virus I:Development and Laboratory Characterization, " New England Journal of Medicine 275, no.11 (1966):569-74
16. Harry M. Meyer Jr. et al., "Clinical Studies with Experimental Live Rubella Virus Vaccine (Strain HPV-77):Evaluation of Vaccine-Induced Immunity, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 117 (1968):648-54.
17. "Drs. Meyer, Parkman Win Joint Recognition for Rubella Research, " NIH Record XIX, no.22 (November 14, 1967):3.
18. George L. Stewart et al., "Rubella-Virus Hemagglutination-Inhibition Test, " New England Journal of Medicine 276, no.10 (1967):554-57
19. "Dr. Paul D. Parkman Named One of Ten Outstanding Young Men of the Year, " NIH Record XX, no.2 (January 23, 1968):1 and 7.
20. Lyndon Baines Johnson to Paul D. Parkman, May 5, 1966, Name File P, file folder "Parkman, I-P, " box 56, White House Central File, LBJ Presidential Library, Austin, TX.
21. Samuel J. Musser and Larry J. Hilsabeck, "Production of Rubella Virus Vaccine:Live, Attenuated, in Canine Renal Cell Cultures, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 118 (1969):356-57, 361.
22. Paul Offit, Vaccinated:One Man's Quest to Defeat the World's Deadliest Diseases (New York:HarperCollins, 2007), 76-78
25. Maurice R. Hilleman et al., "Live Attenuated Rubella Virus Vaccines:Experiences with Duck Embryo Cell Preparations, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 118, no.2 (1969):166.
26. Eugene Buynak et al., "Live Attenuated Rubella Virus, Vaccines prepared in Duck Embryo Cell Culture, " Journal of the American Medical Association 204, no.3 (1968):197 (table 2).
28. Robert E. Weibel et al., "Live Attenuated Rubella Virus Vaccines Prepared in Duck Embryo Cell Culture II:Clinical Tests in Families and in an Institution, " Journal of the American Medical Association 205, no.8 (1969):558.
29. Robert E. Weibel et al., "Live Attenuated Rubella Virus Vaccines Prepared in Duck Embryo Cell Culture II:Clinical Tests in Families and in an Institution, " Journal of the American Medical Association 205, no.8 (1969):558.
Harry M. Meyer Jr., Paul D. Parkman, and Theodore C. Panos, "Attenuated Rubella Virus II:Production of an Experimental Live-Virus Vaccine and Clinical Trial, " New England Journal of Medicine 275, no.11 (1966):575-80.
Sarah Leavitt, "Dr. Paul Parkman Interview, " June 7, 2005, pp. 26-28, Office of NIH History Oral History Program, National Institutes of Health.
P.310 掲載の参考文献
1. John F. Morrison and William T. Keough, "Ex-Phila. Scientist Battles U.S. over Frozen Cells, " Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, April 4, 1976.
2. International Association of Microbiological Societies, Permanent Section of Microbiological Standardization, "Minutes of the Fifth Meeting of the Committee on Cell Cultures, " November 27, 1968, 21.
3. J. P. Jacobs and F. T. Perkins, "Supplying Cell Cultures Regularly to Distant Laboratories, " Bulletin of the World Health Organization 40 (1969):476-78.
4. J. P. Jacobs, C. M. Jones, and J. P. Baille, "Characteristics of a Human Diploid Cell Designated MRC-5, " Nature 227 (1970):168-70.
5. Harold M. Schmeck Jr., "Human Cells Given Role in Vaccines, " New York Times, November 12, 1966, 36.
6. Jane Brody, "Cell Bank Is Suggested for Every Person at Birth, " New York Times, April 3, 1967, 25.
7. "Wistar Institute Comparative Balance Sheet as of 4/30/66, " fourth page:"Percentage Report as of 4/30/66-Grants, " account number 60188, UPT 50 R252, box 68, folder 13 "Wistar Institute 1966, " Isidor Schwaner Ravdin Papers, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania
8. Albert Sabin to Sidney Raffel, August 4, 1967, Correspondence, Individual (Graetz-Hayflick), series 1, box 11, folder "Hayflick, Leonard, 1964-81, " Albert B. Sabin Collection, Henry R. Winkler Center for the History of the Health Professions, University of Cincinnati Libraries, Cincinnati, Ohio.
10. Minutes, Wistar Institute Board of Managers, June 19, 1962; June 22, 1964; and June 15, 1965. The Wistar Institute Board of Managers193, 152, 213.
11. Minutes, Wistar Institute Board of Managers, December 14, 1965. The Wistar Institute Board of Managers, 222.
12. "Wistar Institute Comparative Balance Sheets as of 10/31/67, " fourth page:"Percentage Report as of 10/31/67-Grants, " box 68, file folder 12 ("Wistar Institute 1966-67"), Isidor Schwaner Ravdin Papers, UPT 50 R252, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania, "Wistar Institute Comparative Balance Sheet as of 4/30/ 66, " fourth page, Isidor Schwaner Ravdin Papers, UPT 50 R252, box 68, file fold-er 13 ("Wistar Institute 1966")
13. Factual Chronology, 7.
14. "Minutes of the Wistar Institute Board of Managers Meeting, " December 16, 1966, p. 1, UPT 50 R252, box 68, folder 12 ("Wistar Institute 1966"), Isidor Schwaner Ravdin Papers, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania.
15. exhibit A; "Minutes of the Wistar Institute Board of Managers Meeting, " February 24, 1967, p. 2, UPT 50 R252, box 68, folder 12 ("Wistar Institute, 1966-1967"), Isidor Schwaner Ravdin Papers, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania.
16. Factual Chronology, 7.
17. John D. Ross, "Memorandum on Diploid Contract Conference, Minutes of Meeting, " January 18, 1968, attachment B to Schriver Report, p 1.
18. John D. Ross, "Memorandum on Diploid Contract Conference, Minutes of Meeting, " January 18, 1968, attachment B to Schriver Report, p 1.
19. Charles W. Boone to Hilary Koprowski, February 16, 1968, attachment C to Schriver Report, 2.
21. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, "Contract Number:PH43-62-157, " February 6, 1962, Section 30:"Termination for the Convenience of the Government, " part (g), p. HEW-315-6.
22. "Chronicle Burroughs Wellcome Proposed Agreement, " folder "SKF Correspondence 1968, " Stanley Plotkin private papers, Doylestown, PA.
23. Roger C. Egeberg (assistant secretary for health and scientific affairs) to Hilary Koprowski, August 13, 1970, Stanley Plotkin private papers.
24. A.C.C. Newman to Hilary Koprowski, October 16, 1968, file folder "Smith Kline French, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
26. Hayflick Rebuttal to Schriver Report, 19
27. Schriver Report, 4.
"Wistar Institute Comparative Balance Sheets as of 10/31/67, " fourth page:"Percentage Report as of 10/31/67-Grants, " account number 188, UPT 50 R252, box 68, folder 12 ("Wistar Institute 1966-67"), Isidor Schwaner Ravdin Papers, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania.
"Wistar Institute Comparative Balance Sheet as of 12/31/65, " fourth page, University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania, Isidor Schwaner Ravdin Papers, UPT 50 R252, box 68, file folder 14 ("Wistar Institute 1966").
John Shannon to Leon Jacobs, May 7, 1976, investigations 9, file folder 1, Directors' Files, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health.
P.326 掲載の参考文献
1. Emile Roux is quoted in Stanley A. Plotkin, "Sang Froid in a Time of Trouble:Is a Vaccine Against HIV Possible?" Journal of the International AIDS Society 12, no.2 (2009), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2647531/.doi:10.1186/1758-2652-12-2.
2. Maurice R. Hilleman et al., "Live Attenuated Rubella Virus Vaccines:Experiences with Duck Embryo Cell Preparations, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 118 (1969):171.
3. Samuel J. Musser and Larry J. Hilsabeck, "Production of Rubella Virus Vaccine:Live, Attenuated, in Canine Renal Cell Cultures, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 118 (1969):361.
4. George R. Thompson et al., "Intermittent Arthritis Following Rubella Vaccination, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 125 (1973):526.
5. Stanley A. Plotkin et al., "An Attenuated Rubella Virus Strain Adapted to Primary Rabbit Kidney, " American Journal of Epidemiology 88 (1968):97.
6. "Rubella:Vaccines May Be Licensed by Fall, " Science News 95 (March 1, 1969):209.
7. Stanley Plotkin to Sister Agape, April 4, 1968, folder "St. Vincent's, " Stanley Plotkin private papers, Doylestown, PA.
8. Stanley Plotkin to John Cardinal Krol (archbishop of Philadelphia), April 5, 1968, folder "St. Vincent's, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
9. Archbishop of Philadelphia to Stanley Plotkin, April 11, 1968, Cardinal Krol papers, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center.
10. S. A. Plotkin et al., "Further Studies of an Attenuated Rubella Strain Grown in WI-38 Cells, " American Journal of Epidemiology 39, no.2 (1969):236.
12. Plotkin et al., "Further Studies, " 232.
13. Plotkin et al., "Further Studies, " 237.
14. Stanley Plotkin, "Status of Negotiations with SKF, Merieux and Wellcome, " undated, file folder "SKF Correspondence 1968, " Plotkin private papers.
15. Constant Huygelen, telegram to Robert Ferlauto, April 9, 1968, folder "SKF Correspondence 1968, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
16. Alan D. Lourie, memo to Ed Clay, January 8, 1968, file folder "SKF-Rubella, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
17. Stanley A. Plotkin et al., "A New Attenuated Rubella Virus Grown in Human Fibroblasts:Evidence for Reduced Nasopharyngeal Excretion, " American Journal of Epidemiology 86, no.2 (1967):468-77.
18. Robert Ferlauto to Stanley Plotkin, August 28, 1968, folder "SKF Correspondence 1968, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
19. Robert Ferlauto to Hilary Koprowski, August 12, 1968, folder "SKF Correspondence 1968, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
20. R. Palmer Beasley et al., "Prevention of Rubella During an Epidemic on Taiwan, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 118 (1969):304.
21. Harold M. Schmeck Jr., "Test Finds Rubella Vaccine Effective, " New York Times, October 17, 1968, 1, 27.
22. "Tests on Vaccines to Prevent Rubella Highly Effective, " NIH Record 20, no.22 (October 29, 1968):1, 8, https://nihrecord.nih.gov/PDF_Archive/1968%20PDFs/19681029.pdf (accessed February 8, 2016).
23. Beasley et al., "Prevention of Rubella, " 304.
24. Roderick Murray and Dorland J. Davis to Stanley Plotkin, September 30, 1968, folder "Washington, D.C.-1968, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
25. Plotkin et al., "Attenuated Rubella Virus Strain, " 97-102.
26. Howard A. Rusk, "Rubella Vaccine Near:Likely to Be Available in 2 Months, After Production Guides Take Effect, " New York Times, April 13, 1969.
27. Stanley A. Plotkin et al., "Attenuation of RA 27/3 Rubella Virus in WI-38 Human Diploid Cells, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 118 (1969):184.
28. Hilleman et al., "Live Attenuated Rubella Virus Vaccines, " 167.
29. R. E. Weibel et al., "Live Rubella Vaccines in Adults and Children, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 118, no.2 (1969):226-29.
30. R. E. Weibel et al., "Live Rubella Vaccines in Adults and Children, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 118, no.2 (1969):226-29.
31. Louis Z. Cooper et al., "Transient Arthritis After Rubella Vaccination, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 118, no.2 (1969):218-25.
32. Weibel et al., "Live Rubella Vaccines, " 229.
33. "Recommendation of the Public Health Service Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices:Prelicensing Statement on Rubella Virus Vaccine, " Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 18, no.15 (1969):124-25.
34. "Leads from the MMWR:Rubella Vaccination During Pregnancy-United States, 1971-1988, " Journal of the American Medical Association 261, no.23 (1989):3375.
35. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Control and Prevention of Rubella:Evaluation and Management of Suspected Outbreaks, Rubella in Pregnant Women, and Surveillance for Congenital Rubella Syndrome, " Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 50, no.RR-12 (2001):16.
36. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Control and Prevention of Rubella:Evaluation and Management of Suspected Outbreaks, Rubella in Pregnant Women, and Surveillance for Congenital Rubella Syndrome, " Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 50, no.RR-12 (2001):33.
37. J. E. Banatvala and D. W. G. Brown, "Seminar:Rubella, " Lancet 363 (2004):1128.
38. Plotkin et al., "Attenuation of RA 27/3 Rubella Virus, " 184.
39. Roderick Murray, "Biologics Control of Virus Vaccines, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 118 (1969):336.
40. "Gamma Globulin Prophylaxis; Inactivated Rubella Virus; Production and Biologics Control of Live Attenuated Rubella Virus Vaccines:Discussion on Session V, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 118 (1969):377.
41. "Gamma Globulin Prophylaxis; Inactivated Rubella Virus; Production and Biologics Control of Live Attenuated Rubella Virus Vaccines:Discussion on Session V, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 118 (1969):378.
42. Roger Vaughan, Listen to the Music:The Life of Hilary Koprowski (New York:Springer-Verlag, 2000), 54.
43. Edward Shorter, "The Health Century Oral History Collection, " Bernice Eddy interview, December 4, 1986, p. 25, transcript at the National Library of Medicine, NIH.
44. "Gamma Globulin Prophylaxis, " 378.
45. "Gamma Globulin Prophylaxis, " 379.
46. "Gamma Globulin Prophylaxis, " 379-80.
47. Stanley A. Plotkin, ed., History of Vaccine Development (New York:Springer Science + Business Media, 2011), 226.
48. Robert Q. Marston, director, National Institutes of Health, "Additional Standards; Rubella Virus Vaccine, Live, " Federal Register 34, no.109 (1969):9072-75.
49. Louis Galambos with Jane Eliot Sewell, Networks of Innovation:Vaccine Development at Merck, Sharp & Dohme, and Mulford, 1985-1995 (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1995), 112.
50. Stanley A. Plotkin, "Rubella Vaccination, " Journal of the American Medical Association 215, no.9 (1971):1492-93.
51. Thompson et al., "Intermittent Arthritis, " 526.
52. William Schaffner et al., "Polyneuropathy Following Rubella Immunization:A Follow-up Study and Review of the Problem, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 127 (1974):684-88.
53. General Accounting Office, "Bid Protest-Negotiation-Specification Compliance Denial of Protest Against Rejection of Offer for Furnishing Live Rubella Vaccine to Veterans Administration on Basis That Vaccine Did Not Comply with the Requirements of the Amended Specifications, " B-170817, September 25, 1970, www.gao.gov/products/429478#mt=e-report (accessed February 15, 2016).
54. Harold M. Schmeck Jr., "One of 3 Rubella Vaccine Producers Barred from Bidding for US Contract, " New York Times, September 15, 1970, 13.
55. T. Norton, memo to Hilary Koprowski and Stanley Plotkin, January 15, 1970, folder "SKF-Rubella, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
56. Memorandum of a meeting held at Smith, Kline & French on September 22, 1970, folder "SKF-Rubella, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
57. Stanley Plotkin to Leonard Hayflick, October 2, 1970, folder "Correspondence-H, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
P.347 掲載の参考文献
1. Leonard Hayflick, "The Coming of Age of WI-38, " Advances in Cell Culture 3 (1984):303.
4. Roger Vaughan, Listen to the Music:The Life of Hilary Koprowski (New York:Springer-Verlag, 2000), 112.
6. Stanley Plotkin to Leonard Hayflick, July 9, 1968, file folder "Correspondence-H, " Stanley Plotkin Rubella Papers.
7. International Association of Microbiological Societies, Permanent Section of Microbiological Standardization, "Minutes of the Fourth Meeting of the Committee on Cell Cultures, " September 16, 1967, p. 63.
8. Factual Chronology, 7.
9. Schriver Report, 8-9.
10. Schriver Report, 9.
11. Hayflick Rebuttal to Schriver Report, 40- 41.
12. International Association of Microbiological Societies, Permanent Section of Microbiological Standardization, "Minutes of the Fifth Meeting of the Committee on Cell Cultures, " November 27, 1968, p. 20
13. Schriver Report, 8.
14. Factual Chronology, 20.
15. Factual Chronology, 20.
16. Stanley Plotkin to Leonard Hayflick, December 8, 1969, file folder "Correspondence-H, " Stanley Plotkin private papers, Doylestown, PA.
17. Factual Chronology, 32-33.
18. Stanley A. Plotkin to Leonard Hayflick, March 17, 1969, file folder "Correspondence-H, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
19. Stanley Plotkin to Leonard Hayflick, August 1, 1969, file folder "Correspondence-H, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
20. Leonard Hayflick to Stanley Plotkin, August 11, 1969, file folder "Correspondence-H, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
Schriver Report, 8.
P.357 掲載の参考文献
1. Testimony of Dr. Leonard Hayflick, Senate Subcommittee on Executive Reorganization and Government Research of the Committee on Government Operations, Consumer Safety Act of 1972:Hearings on Titles I and II of S. 3419, 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., April 20 and 21 and May 3 and 4, 1972, p. 34.
2. Debbie Bookchin and Jim Schumacher, The Virus and the Vaccine:Contaminated Vaccine, Deadly Cancers and Government Neglect (New York:St. Martin's, 2004), 127.
3. Jane E. Brody, "Vaccine Produced in Human Cells, " New York Times, March 8, 1972, 18.
4. Nicholas Wade, "Division of Biologics Standards:The Boat That Never Rocked, " Science 175 (1972):1228.
5. Abraham Ribicoff, "Exhibit 55:Vaccine Safety, " Senate Subcommittee on Executive Reorganization and Government Research, Consumer Safety Act of 1972:Hearings, 512-32.
7. Ribicoff, "Exhibit 55:Vaccine Safety, " 527.
8. Testimony of Dr. Leonard Hayflick, 29-38.
9. Wade, "DBS:Agency Contravenes, " 35.
10. Consumer Safety Act of 1972:Hearings, 36.
11. P. Stessel, memo to R. A. Schoellhorn, H. Perlmutter, J. Rose, G. J. Sella Jr., R. J. Vallancourt, P. J. Vasington (Lederle Laboratories), April 26, 1972, Bookchin and Schumacher, Virus and the Vaccine, 127, 306.
12. Leonard Hayflick, "Human Virus Vaccines:Why Monkey Cells?" Science 176 (1972):813-14.
13. Stanley A. Plotkin to Senator Abraham Ribicoff, Consumer Safety Act of 1972:Hearings, 419-20.
14. "Dr. Roderick Murray Named Special Assistant to the Director of NIAID, " NIH Record, June 7, 1972, 5.
15. Bookchin and Schumacher, Virus and the Vaccine, 127.
16. S. Kops, "Oral Polio Vaccine and Human Cancer:A Reassessment of SV40 as a Contaminant, Based upon Legal Documents, " Anticancer Research 20 (2000):4746.
17. Bookchin and Schumacher, Virus and the Vaccine, 124.
18. David Oshinksy, "Polio, " in:Andrew W. Artenstein, ed., Vaccines:A Biography (New York:Springer Science + Business Media, 2010), 219.
19. Nicoletta Previsani et al., "World Health Organization Guidelines for Containment of Poliovirus Following Type-Specific Polio Eradication:Worldwide, 2015, " Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 64, no.33 (2015):913, www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6433a5.htm?s_cid=mm6433a5_w (accessed February 18, 2016).
20. World Health Organization Media Centre:"Government of Nigeria Reports 2 Wild Polio Cases, First Since July 2014:New Cases Come on the Two-Year Anniversary Since the Last Confirmed Case of Polio Was Reported in Africa" (news release), Au-gust 11, 2016, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2016/nigeria-polio/en/ (accessed September 8, 2016)
6 . Nicholas Wade, "DBS:Agency Contravenes Its Own Regulations, " Science 175 (1972):34.
Leslie Roberts, "Nigeria Outbreak Forces Rethink of Polio Strategies, " Science Insider (online), September 6, 2016, http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/09/nigeria-outbreak-forces-rethink-polio-strategies (accessed September 8, 2016)
P.367 掲載の参考文献
1. Rebecca Sheir, "Ebola Researcher Says Vaccinology Isn't Rocket Science-It's Hard-er, " Metro Connection, WAMU Radio, October 23 2014. Transcript available here:http://wamu.org/programs/metro_connection/14/10/23/ebola_researcher_says_vaccinology_isnt_rocket_science_its_harder_transcript (accessed September 1, 2016).
2. "Dr. Dorothy Horstmann dies-key in development of polio vaccine, " Yale Bulletin & Calendar 29, no.16 (2001), http://www.yale.edu/opa/arc-ybc/v29.n16/story18.html
3. Jane E. Brody, "New Research on Rubella Challenges Effectiveness of Vaccination Program, " New York Times, September 29, 1970, 8.
4. Dorothy M. Horstmann et al., "Rubella:Reinfection of Vaccinated and Naturally Immune Persons Exposed in an Epidemic, " New England Journal of Medicine 283, no.15 (1970):771-78.
5. Sott B. Halstead et al., "Susceptibility to Rubella Among Adolescents and Adults in Hawaii, " Journal of the American Medical Association 210 (10):1881-83.
6. Te-Wen Chang, Suzanne DesRosiers, and Louis Weinstein, "Clinical and Serological Studies of an Outbreak of Rubella in a Vaccinated Population, " New England Journal of Medicine 283, no.5 (1970):246-48
7. Dorothy M. Horstmann et al., "Rubella:Reinfection of Vaccinated and Naturally Immune Persons Exposed in an Epidemic, " New England Journal of Medicine 283, no.15 (1970):771-78.
8. Dorothy M. Horstmann et al., "Rubella:Reinfection of Vaccinated and Naturally Immune Persons Exposed in an Epidemic, " New England Journal of Medicine 283, no.15 (1970):775.
9. Chang, DesRosiers, and Weinstein, "Clinical and Serological Studies of an Outbreak of Rubella in a Vaccinated Population, " New England Journal of Medicine 283, no.5 (1970):246-48.
10. Elias Abrutyn et al., "Rubella Vaccine Comparative Study:Nine-Month Follow-Up and Serologic Response to Natural Challenge, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 120 (1970):129-33
11. Horstmann et al., "Rubella:Reinfection, " 777.
12. Dorothy Horstmann to Stanley Plotkin, January 30 1970.
13. Stanley Plotkin to Dorothy Horstmann, November 30, 1970, and April 16, 1971, folder "Horstmann, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
14. Dorothy Horstmann to Stanley Plotkin, March 12, 1970, file folder "Horstmann, " Stan-ley Plotkin private papers.
15. Ann Schluederberg et al., "Neutralizing and Hemagglutination- Inhibiting Antibodies to Rubella Virus as Indicators of Protective Immunity in Vaccinees and Naturally Immune Individuals, " Journal of Infectious Diseases 138, no.6 (1978):877-83.
16. Liebhaber et al., "Vaccination with RA 27/3, " 133-36.
17. Chang, DesRosiers, and Weinstein, "Clinical and Serological Studies, " 247
18. Liebhaber et al., "Vaccination with RA 27/3, " 134-35.
19. Liebhaber et al., "Vaccination with RA 27/3, " 136.
21. Plotkin, Farquhar, and Pearay, "Immunologic Properties of RA 27/3, " 585 and 589.
22. Stanley Plotkin to Leonard Hayflick, October 3, 1973, file folder "Correspondence-H, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
24. Robert E. Weibel et al., "Clinical and Laboratory Studies of Live Attenuated RA 27/3 and HPV 77-DE Rubella Virus Vaccines, " Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 165, no.1 (1980):44-49.
25. Robert E. Weibel et al., "Clinical and Laboratory Studies of Live Attenuated RA 27/3 and HPV 77-DE Rubella Virus Vaccines, " Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 165, no.1 (1980):44.
26. Schluederberg et al., "Neutralizing and Hemagglutination-Inhibiting Antibodies, " 877-83.
David M. Oshinsky, "Breaking the Back of Polio, " Yale Medicine 40, no.1 (2005), http://yalemedicine.yale.edu/autumn2005/features/feature/52012/
Daniel Wilson, unpublished interview with Dorothy Horstmann, 1990, Dorothy M. Horstmann Papers (MS 1700), box 12, Folder 257, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University Library.
J. M. Forrest, M. A. Menser, and M. C. Honeyman, "Clinical Rubella Eleven Months After Vaccination, " Lancet 300, no.7774 (1972):399-400.
William J. Davis et al., "A Study of Rubella Immunity and Resistance to Infection, " Journal of the American Medical Association 215, no.4 (1971):600-608
Jeanette Wilkins et al., "Reinfection with Rubella Virus Despite Live Vaccine-Induced Immunity, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 118:(1969):275-94
Harvey Liebhaber et al., "Vaccination with RA27/3 Rubella Vaccine:Persistence of Immunity and Resistance to Challenge After Two Years, " American Journal of Diseases of Children 123 (1972):134.
Wilkins et al., "Reinfection with Rubella Virus, " 291
Horstmann et al., "Rubella:Reinfection, " 775
Stanley A. Plotkin, John D. Farquhar, and Ogra L. Pearay, "Immunologic Properties of RA 27/3 Rubella Virus Vaccine:A Comparison with Strains Presently Licensed in the United States, " Journal of the American Medical Association 225, no.6 (1973):588.

第3部 WI - 38細胞をめぐる攻防

P.384 掲載の参考文献
2. Forrest Stevenson Jr., "Women, the Bible and Abortion, " (Brighton, MI:Forrest Stevenson, 1972).
3. State of Michigan, Department of State, "Initiatives and Referendums Under the Constitution of the State of Michigan, 1963, " December 5, 2008, 14.
4. James V. Siena to Forrest Stevenson, November 30, 1972.
5. Arthur F. Barkey to James V. Siena, December 7, 1972.
6. Forrest Stevenson to Dr. Hayflick, in "Letters to the Editor, " Gazette Times (Heppner, OR), July 4, 1974.
7. Leonard Hayflick to Life Line (Passaic County Right to Life newsletter), July 20, 1973.
8. United Press International, "Human Cells to Be Orbited in Outer Space, " Los Angeles Times, May 2, 1973.
9. James J. Ambrose to Joseph T. McGucken (archbishop of San Francisco), May 2, 1973.
11. P. O. Montgomery et al., "The Response of Single Human Cells to Zero Gravity, " in Richard S. Johnston and Lawrence F. Dietlein, Biomedical Results from Skylab, NASA SP-377 (Washington, DC:Scientific and Technical Information Office, National Aero-nautical and Space Administration, 1977), 221-33.
12. Mrs. Raymond Somerville to Leonard Hayflick, June 14, 1973
P.392 掲載の参考文献
2. Hayflick Rebuttal to Schriver Report, 34.
3. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, "Contract Number:PH43-62-157, " February 6, 1962, Section 30:"Termination for the Convenience of the Government, " part (g), p. HEW-315-6.
4. Schriver Report, attachment B.
5. Schriver Report, 9.
7. Schriver Report, 9
8. Schriver Report, 10.
9. Louis Rosenfeld, "Insulin:Discovery and Controversy, " Clinical Chemistry 48, no.12 (2002):2280.
10. Jonas Salk, interview with Edward R. Murrow on See It Now, CBS, April 12, 1955. Elizabeth Popp Berman, Creating the Market University:How Academic Science Became an Economic Engine (Princeton, NJ:Princeton University Press, 2012), 5
11. Frederick J. Hammett, "Uncommitted Researchers, " Science 117 (1953):64.
13. Schriver Report, 9.
14. Schriver Report, 11
15. Schriver Report, attachment A.
16. Schriver Report, attachment A. 12.
17. Schriver Report, attachment A. 6-7.
18. Schriver Report, attachment A. Schriver Rebuttal to Hayflick Rebuttal, 58-59.
19. Schriver Report, 12
20. Factual Chronology, 38-39.
21. Factual Chronology, 38.
23. Schriver Report, 12.
24. Hayflick Rebuttal to Schriver Report, 14.
25. Stanley N. Cohen et al., "Construction of Biologically Functional Bacterial Plasmids in Vitro, " Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 70, no.11 (1973):3240-44.
26. Niels Reimers, "Stanford's Office of Technology Licensing and the Cohen/Boyer Cloning Patents, " oral history conducted in 1997 by Sally Smith Hughes, p. 3, Regional Oral History Office, Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley, 1998.
27. Sally Smith Hughes, "Making Dollars Out of DNA:The First Major Patent in Biotechnology and the Commercialization of Molecular Biology, 1974-1980, " Isis 92 (2001):549
28. Rajendra K. Bera, "Commentary:The Story of the Cohen-Boyer Patents, " Current Science 96, no.6 (2009):760.
29. Herbert W. Boyer, "Recombinant DNA Research at UCSF and Commercial Application at Genentech, " oral history conducted in 1994 by Sally Smith Hughes, p. 98, Regional Oral History Office, Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley, www.oac.cdlib.org/view?docId=kt5d5nb0zs&brand=oac4&doc.view=entire_text (accessed February 26, 2016).
30. Stephen S. Hall, Merchants of Immortality:Chasing the Dream of Human Life Extension (Boston, New York:Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003), 37.『不死を売る人びと-「夢の医療」とアメリカの挑戦』(スティーヴン・S・ホール作, 松浦俊輔訳, 阪急コミュニケーションズ, 2004年)
31. Ronald W. Lamont-Havers to Leonard Hayflick, October 10, 1974.
32. Hayflick Rebuttal to Schriver Report, 3-4
33. Schriver Rebuttal to Hayflick Rebuttal, 4-6.
34. Schriver Rebuttal to Hayflick Rebuttal, 6-7
35. Donald G. Murphy to Leonard Hayflick, January 31, 1975.
36. "Factual Chronology, " 21.
37. Schriver Rebuttal to Hayflick Rebuttal, 6-7.
39. Schriver Rebuttal to Hayflick Rebuttal, 6.
40. "James Schriver Named Head of Newly Created OAM Audit Branch, " NIH Record 25, no.3 (February 12, 1963):5
41. "James Schriver Named Head, " 5.
42. Nicholas Wade, "Division of Biologics Standards:Scientific Management Questioned, " Science 175 (1972):966.
43. Philip M. Boffey, "The Fall and Rise of Leonard Hayflick, Biologist Whose Fight with US Seems Over, " New York Times, January 19, 1982.
48. Factual Chronology, 25, 28-29
50. Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology and Connaught Laboratories, License Agreement, January 1, 1973, folder "Connaught Correspondence, " Stanley Plotkin private papers, Doylestown, PA.
51. Schriver Report, 7.
52. Schriver Report, 7.
53. Factual Chronology, 26-27.
54. Factual Chronology, 26.
55. Factual Chronology, 27.
56. Factual Chronology, 28.
58. Factual Chronology, 38.
59. Senate Subcommittee on Executive Reorganization and Government Research of the Committee on Government Operations, Consumer Safety Act of 1972:Hearings on Titles I and II of S. 3419, 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., April 20 and 21 and May 3 and 4, 1972, p. 35.
60. Factual Chronology, 38-39.
61. Factual Chronology, 38-39.
62. Leon Jacobs, memo to the record, "Re:Telephone Conversation with Mr. Don Brooks (Attorney), Merck and Company, " March 31, 1976, investigations 9, file folder 1, Directors' Files, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health.
63. M. F. Miller (Merck) "Memo for File:WI-38 Human Diploid Cells, " July 11, 1974.
64. Riseberg Memo, 3.
65. Riseberg Memo, 3.
66. Richard Thornburgh to Richard J. Riseberg, August 6, 1975, investigations 9, file folder 1, Directors' Files, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health.
67. Factual Chronology, 33.
68. Donald G. Murphy, memos to the record, "PHS Working Group on WI-38, " July 21 and 25, 1975, investigations 9, folder 1, Directors' Files, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health.
69. J. E. Shannon, memo to Dr. R. Donvick, October 9, 1975, "Reference:Inventory of WI-38 Cells Delivered by NIH."
John E. Shannon and Marvin L. Macy, eds., The American Type Culture Collection Registry of Animal Cell Lines, 2nd ed. (Rockville, MD:American Type Culture Collection, 1972), 17
Robert Hay et al., eds., The American Type Culture Collection:Catalogue of Strains II, 2nd ed. (Rockville, MD:American Type Culture Collection, 1979), viii.
Jane S. Smith, Patenting the Sun:Polio and the Salk Vaccine (New York:Morrow, 1990), 13.
Schriver Rebuttal to Hayflick Rebuttal, 106.
Schriver Rebuttal to Hayflick Rebuttal, 106.
Berman, Creating the Market University, 64.
Berman, Creating the Market University, 66.
Leonard Hayflick, "Hayflick's Reply, " Science 202 (1978):129.
Schriver Report, 1
Factual Chronology, 21.
"James Schriver Retires After 17 Years at NIH, " NIH Record 32, no.7 (April 1, 1980):4.
Schriver Report, 5.
P.418 掲載の参考文献
1. Nicholas Wade, "Hayflick's Tragedy:The Rise and Fall of a Human Cell Line, " Science 192, no.4235 (1976):125.
2. Harold M. Schmeck Jr., "Investigator Says Scientist Sold Cell Specimens Owned by U.S., " New York Times, March 28, 1976, 1, 26.
3. Schriver Report, 1-14 and attachments A-C.
4. Factual Chronology, 51.
5. Hayflick Rebuttal to Schriver Report, 41, 45.
6. Hayflick Rebuttal to Schriver Report, 53
7. Wade, "Vaccine Cells Found Mostly Contaminated, " 41.
8. Leonard Hayflick, "Hayflick's Reply, " Science 202 (1978):131.
9. Leonard Hayflick, "Press Statement, " Plotkin Rubella Papers, folder "Correspondence-H, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
10. Wade, "Hayflick's Tragedy, " 125-27.
12. Schmeck, "Investigator Says Scientist Sold, " 26.
13. Schriver Report, 4
14. Factual Chronology, 34.
15. Wade, "Hayflick's Tragedy, " 127.
16. Pan Demetrakakes, "Prof in Alleged Fund Misuse, " Stanford Daily 169, no.22 (March 3, 1976).
17. Factual Chronology, 43.
18. Factual Chronology, 43.
19. Clayton Rich, "Dean Rich Speaks on Hayflick Case, " Stanford University Campus Report 8, no.40 (July 21, 1976), investigations 9, file folder 1, Directors' Files, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health.
21. Zhores A. Medvedev, "Letter:Hayflick's Tragedy, " Science 192 (1976):1182-84.
22. Stephen S. Hall, Merchants of Immortality:Chasing the Dream of Human Life Extension (Boston, New York:Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003), 39. 『不死を売る人びと-「夢の医療」とアメリカの挑戦』(スティーヴン・S・ホール作, 松浦俊輔訳, 阪急コミュニケーションズ, 2004年)
23. Albert Sabin to Bernard Strehler, December 1, 1981, box 11, file folder "Correspondence, Individual, Hayflick, Leonard, 1964-81, " Correspondence-Individual (Graetz-Hayflick) series 1, Albert B. Sabin Collection, Henry R. Winkler Center for the History of the Health Professions, University of Cincinnati Libraries.
25. Cell Associates, Inc. and Leonard Hayflick v. National Institute [sic] of Health; Department of Health, Education and Welfare; and Donald Fredrickson, Director of National Institute [sic] of Health (U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, C76 601 RHS), March 25, 1976, p. 7, investigations 9, file folder 4, Directors' Files, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health.
26. Herbert J. Kreitman to Leonard Hayflick, September 30, 1976, investigations 9, folder 2, Directors' Files, Office of the Director, NIH
28. Stanley A. Plotkin to Leonard Hayflick, May 27, 1976, file folder "Correspondence-H, " Stanley Plotkin private papers.
29. Hayflick Rebuttal to Schriver Report, 1-65.
30. Schriver Rebuttal to Hayflick Rebuttal, 1-121.
31. Wade, "Vaccine Cells Found Mostly Contaminated, " 41.
32. Schriver Report, 1.
33. Cell Associates v. National Institute [sic] of Health, 7.
34. "Human Cancer Cell Reconstruction and Transformation, " 1 R01 CA 18456-01, from 01/01/76 through 12/31/80, investigations 9, file folder 1, Directors' Files, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health
35. Peter Libassi, memo to Thomas Morris and Donald Fredrickson, April 23, 1978, p. 2, Office of the Director, NIH, Directors' Files, investigations 9, folder 2.
36. Richard J. Riseberg, "Chronology, " 4, attachment to Riseberg letter to Donald Fredrickson, January 6, 1978, Office of the Director, NIH, Directors' Files, investigations 9, folder 2.
37. Leonard Hayflick to Donald Fredrickson, November 8, 1978.
38. Richard J. Riseberg, memo to Robert N. Butler, "Subject:Application for Research Grant-Dr. Hayflick, " 1-2, August 24, 1977, Office of the Director, NIH, Directors' Files, investigations 9, folder 2.
39. Betty H. Pickett, memo to Donald Murphy, July 27, 1977.
40. Betty H. Pickett, memo to Donald Murphy, July 27, 1977.
41. Leon Jacobs, "Memorandum, Subject:Hayflick, " December 8, 1977, Office of the Director, NIH, Directors' Files, investigations 9, folder 3.
42. Thomas D. Morris (inspector general), memo to the Hayflick File, "Subject:Meeting of January 9, 1978, " Office of the Director, NIH, Directors' Files, investigations 9, folder 2.
43. Thomas D. Morris, memo to the Hayflick File, April 11, 1978.
44. Mary Miers, note to Dr. Malone, July 16, 1981, investigations 9, folder 2, Directors' Files, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health.
45. Richard Riseberg, memo to Special Assistant to the Director, NIH, "Proposed Basis of Settlement in the Cell Associates Case, " November 9, 1979, investigations 9, folder 2, Directors' Files, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health.
Nicholas Wade, "Vaccine Cells Found Mostly Contaminated, " Science 194, no.4260 (1976):41.
Factual Chronology, 13.
Richard J. Riseberg, memo to Dr. Fredrickson and Mr. Schriver, "Subject:Cell Associates, Inc. v. NIH, " November 2, 1978, investigations 9, folder 3, Directors' Files, Office of the Director, NIH
Nicholas Wade, "Despite the Length of Hayflick's Letter, " Science 202 (1978):136.
Donald G. Murphy letter to Leonard Hayflick, July 30, 1976, Office of the Director, NIH, Directors' Files, investigations 9, folder 3.
Office of the Director, NIH, Directors' Files, investigations 9, folder 2.
P.438 掲載の参考文献
1. Marcel Baltazard and Mehdi Ghodssi, "Prevention of Human Rabies:Treatment of Persons Bitten by Rabid Wolves in Iran, " Bulletin of the World Health Organization 10, no.5 (1954):798.
2. Mahmoud Bahmanyar et al., "Successful Protection of Humans Exposed to Rabies Infection:Postexposure Treatment with the New Human Diploid Cell Rabies Vaccine and Antirabies Serum, " Journal of the American Medical Association 236, no.24 (1976):2751-54.
3. T. J. Wiktor, S. A. Plotkin, and H. Koprowski, "Development and Clinical Trials of the New Human Rabies Vaccine of Tissue Culture (Human Diploid Cell) Origin, " Developments in Biological Standardization 40 (1978):3-9.
4. T. J. Wiktor et al., "Immunogenicity of Concentrated and Purified Rabies Vaccine of Tissue Culture Origin, " Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 131 (1969):799-805.
5. H. Koprowski, "In Vitro Production of Antirabies Virus Vaccine, " in International Symposium on Rabies, Talloires 1965, Symposium Series on Immunobiological Standards, vol.1 (Basel and New York:Karger, 1966), 363-64.
6. Centers for Disease Control, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 34, nos. 2, 5, and 7(1985), reprinted in Journal of the American Medical Association (March 15, 1985):1540.
7. Centers for Disease Control, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 34, nos. 2, 5, and 7(1985), reprinted in Journal of the American Medical Association (March 15, 1985)
8. Mario V. Fernandes, Hilary Koprowski, and Tadeusz J. Wiktor, "Method of Producing Rabies Vaccine, " U.S. Patent 3,397,267, filed September 21, 1964, and issued August 13, 1968, www.google.com/patents/US3397267.
9. Wiktor, Plotkin, and Koprowski, "Development and Clinical Trials, " 5
10. Wiktor, Plotkin, and Grella, "Human Cell Culture Rabies Vaccine, " 1170-71.
11. Wiktor, Plotkin, and Koprowski, "Development and Clinical Trials, " 5, 7.
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15. Center for Disease Control, "Recommendation of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP):Rabies Prevention, " Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 29, no.3 (1980):266.