麻酔科プラクティス 3 麻酔科医に必要な周術期呼吸管理

出版社: 文光堂
著者:
発行日: 2020-12-04
分野: 臨床医学:外科  >  麻酔科学/ペイン
ISBN: 9784830628498
電子書籍版: 2020-12-04 (第1版第1刷)
書籍・雑誌
≪全国送料無料でお届け≫
取寄せ目安:4~8営業日

12,100 円(税込)

電子書籍
章別単位での購入はできません
ブラウザ、アプリ閲覧

12,100 円(税込)

商品紹介

〈麻酔科プラクティス〉シリーズ第3巻は,術中の麻酔管理に重要な「呼吸管理」について必要な最新知識を解説.近年,人工呼吸器の性能は飛躍的に向上し,様々なモニタリング機能やモードが追加された.便利になった反面,本来の適切な設定方法で見るべきポイントが忘れられてきている.本書では,呼吸管理に苦手意識を持つ麻酔科医や若手麻酔科医でも適切に理解して呼吸管理ができるよう,必ず押さえておきたい情報を厳選解説.人工呼吸器,気道確保デバイスを理解して使えるようになる.呼吸管理の最新の考えかた,人工呼吸器のモードや画面の見かた,術前評価のポイントがわかる.また,本書に満載,最前線で臨床に携わる麻酔科医によるアドバイス「Clinical Pearls」は必ず実践で役立つはず.

目次

  • I 呼吸生理の基礎
     1 麻酔科専門医に必要な呼吸生理の知識

    II 術前評価
     1 身体所見の見かた
     2 胸部X線検査の見かた
     3 呼吸機能検査の読みかた
     4 動脈血液ガス分析

    III 気道確保
     1 喉頭展開デバイス
     2 気道確保デバイス
     3 困難気道の対応
     4 観血的気道確保の方法

    IV 酸素療法
     1 酸素療法の基本
     2 HFNC,NPPV

    V 呼吸器デバイスの基本構造
     1 麻酔器の基本構造
     2 麻酔用人工呼吸器の基本構造
     [T]最近の麻酔器と低流量麻酔支援機能

    VI 医療ガスの基礎知識
     1 医療ガスの種類

    VII 人工呼吸モード
     1 PCVとVCV
     2 基本的な換気モードA/C
     3 基本的な換気モードSIMV
     4 基本的な換気モードPSV
     5 特殊なモード
     6 ECMOの基本コンセプト
     7 NO吸入療法

    VIII 人工呼吸器管理の考えかた
     1 肺保護換気
     2 自発呼吸 VS 陽圧換気 利点と欠点
     [OPA]食道内圧と経肺圧
     3 術中呼吸管理の考えかた
     4 換気設定
     [B]PEEPの設定方法
     5 抜管の基準
     6 離脱に難渋する患者の離脱戦略
     7 加温加湿,人工鼻
     8 小児の人工呼吸器管理
     9 人工呼吸中のモニタリング
     10 グラフィックモニター
     11 コンプライアンスとレジスタンス
     [OPA]CO2モニタリングの重要性―monitored anesthesia care―
     12 人工呼吸と肺エコー
     [T]electrical impedance tomography(EIT)

    IX 合併疾患を有する患者の術中管理
     1 慢性閉塞性肺疾患,気管支喘息
     2 間質性肺炎
     3 肥満,睡眠時無呼吸症候群
     [OPA]筋萎縮性側索硬化症(ALS)患者の胃瘻造設管理


    X 手術と呼吸管理 各論
     1 腹腔鏡手術の呼吸管理
     2 呼吸器外科手術の呼吸管理
     3 母体の周術期呼吸管理

    XI 合併症とその管理
     1 無気肺,気胸・血胸,誤嚥性肺

    XII 呼吸器関連リハビリテーション
     1 術前呼吸訓練
     2 術後リハビリテーション

    [T]=Topics
    [B]=Basic
    [OPA]=One Point Advice

おすすめ商品

この書籍の参考文献

参考文献のリンクは、リンク先の都合等により正しく表示されない場合がありますので、あらかじめご了承下さい。

本参考文献は電子書籍掲載内容を元にしております。

I 呼吸生理の基礎

P.7 掲載の参考文献
2) 半井悦朗ほか : 呼吸管理に必要な呼吸生理. 日集中医誌 15 : 49-56, 2008
3) Edmark L, et al : Optimal oxygen concentration during induction of general anesthesia. Anesthesiology 98 : 28-33, 2003
4) Rothen HU, et al : Dynamics of re-expansion of atelectasis during general anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 82 : 551-556, 1999
5) Hedenstierna G, et al : Respiratory function during anesthesia : Effects on gas exchange. Compr Physiol 2 : 69-96, 2012
6) Hedenstierna G, et al : Functional residual capacity, thoracoabdominal dimensions, and central blood volume during general anesthesia with muscle paralysis and mechanical ventilation. Anesthesiology 62 : 247-254, 1985
7) Grieco DL, et al : Lung volumes, respiratory mechanics and dynamic strain during general anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 121 : 1156-1165, 2018
8) Lutfi MF : The physiological basis and clinical significance of lung volume measurements. Multidiscip Respir Med 12 : 3, 2017
9) Galvin I, et al : Distribution of blood flow and ventilation in the lung : gravity is not the only factor. Br J Anaesth 98 : 420-428, 2007
10) Petersson J, et al : Paradoxical redistribution of pulmonary blood flow in prone and supine humans exposed to hypergravity. J Appl Physiol 100 : 240-248, 2006
11) Rimeika D, et al : Regulation of regional lung perfusion by nitric oxide. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 170 : 450-455, 2004
12) Nyren S, et al : Lung ventilation and perfusion in prone and supine postures with reference to anesthetized and mechanically ventilated healthy volunteers. Anesthesiology 112 : 682-687, 2010
13) Ochiai R, et al : Effects of varying concentrations of halothane on the activity of the genioglossus, intercostals, and diaphragm in cats : An electromyographic study. Anesthesiology 70 : 812-816, 1989
14) Matsumoto T, et al : Impact of sleep characteristics and obesity on diabetes and hypertension across genders and menopausal status : the Nagahama study. SLEEP J 41 : 1-10, 2018
15) Marshall NS, et al : Sleep apnea and 20-year follow-up for all-cause mortality, stroke, and cancer incidence and mortality in the Busselton health study cohort. Clin Sleep Med 10 : 355-362, 2014
16) Tsuiki S, et al : Anatomical balance of the upper airway and obstructive sleep apnea. Anesthesiology 108 : 1009-1015, 2008
17) Chen H, et al : Phenotypes of responders to mandibular advancement device therapy in obstructive sleep apnea patients : A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Medicine Reviews 49 : 101229, 2020
18) Knill RL, et al : Anesthesia with abdominal surgery leads to intense REM sleep during the first postoperative week. Anesthesiology 73 : 52-61, 1990
19) Chung F, et al : Factors associated with postoperative exacerbation of sleep-disordered breathing. Anesthesiology 120 : 287-298, 2014

II 術前評価

P.16 掲載の参考文献
1) Amaya F, et al : Preoperative anesthesia clinic in Japan : a nationwide survey of the current practice of preoperative anesthesia assessment. J Anesth 29 : 175-179, 2015
2) Prabhu M, et al : Pre-anaesthetic evaluation of the patient with end-stage lung disease. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 31 : 249-260, 2017
3) Lumb AB : Pre-operative respiratory optimisation : an expert review. Anaesthesia 74 Suppl 1 : 43-48, 2019
4) Tobias JD : Preoperative anesthesia evaluation. Semin Pediatr Surg 27 : 67-74, 2018
5) 江口正信 : 新訂版 根拠から学ぶ基礎看護技術, サイオ出版, 東京, 2015
6) 肺の聴診に関する国際シンポジウム. 日本医師会雑誌 94 : 2049-2052, 1985
P.23 掲載の参考文献
1) Committee on Standards and Practice Parameters, Apfelbaum JL, et al, American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Preanesthesia Evaluation, Pasternak LR, et al : Practice advisory for preanesthesia evaluation : an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Preanesthesia Evaluation. Anesthesiology 116 : 522-538, 2012
2) Fleisher LA, et al : 2014 ACC/AHA guideline on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation and management of patients undergoingnoncardiac surgery : a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 64 : e77-137, 2014
3) Kristensen SD, et al : 2014 ESC/ESA Guidelines on non-cardiac surgery : cardiovascular assessment and management : The Joint Task Force on non-cardiac surgery : cardiovascular assessment and management of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA). Eur Heart J 35 : 2383-2431, 2014
4) National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Preoperative tests : the use of routine preoperative tests for elective surgery. http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG3NICEguideline.pdf. (2020年7月閲覧)
5) Jindal S, et al : Is routine preoperative chest X-ray : An underutilized tool in asymptomatic patients. Ann Card Anaesth 21 : 460-461, 2018
6) 久保武 : わかりやすい胸部画像診断-胸部X線をどう見るか-. 日本呼吸ケア・リハビリテーション学会誌 25 : 180- 185, 2015
P.29 掲載の参考文献
1) 日本呼吸器学会 肺生理専門委員会 : 呼吸機能検査ガイドライン-スパイロメトリー, フローボリューム曲線, 肺拡散能力-, メディカルレビュー社, 東京, 20-49, 2004
2) ジョン B ウエストほか : ウエスト 呼吸生理学入門 正常肺編, 第2版, メディカル・サイエンス・インターナショナル, 東京, 193-205, 2017
3) ジョン B ウエストほか : ウエスト 呼吸生理学入門 疾患肺編, 第2版, メディカル・サイエンス・インターナショナル, 東京, 3-41, 2018
4) 一ノ瀬正和 : 慢性閉塞性肺疾患の薬物療法. 日内会誌 96 : 483-489, 2007
5) Casanova C, et al : Inspiratory-to-total lung capacity ratio predicts mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 171 : 591-597, 2005
6) Sawabata N, et al : Risk assessment of lung resection for lung cancer according to pulmonary function : republication of systematic review and proposals by guideline committee of the Japanese association for chest surgery 2014. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 63 : 14-21, 2015
7) Wyser C, et al : Prospective evaluation of an algorithm for the functional assessment of lung resection candidates. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159 : 1450-1456, 1999
8) Olsen GN, et al : Prediction of postpneumonectomy pulmonary function using quantitative macroaggregate lung scanning. Chest 66 : 13-16, 1974

III 気道確保

P.39 掲載の参考文献
1) 小林武夫ほか : 医原性気道食道異物 (第2報). 日気管食道会報 39 : 512-520, 1988
2) 根岸由美子ほか : McGRATH(R) MACによる気管挿管 : 手術患者50症例での検討. 麻酔 63 : 1025-1028. 2014
3) Owada G, et al : A comparison of the Airtraq(R), McGrath(R), and Macintosh laryngoscopes for difficult paediatric intubation : A manikin study. PLoS One 12 (2) : e0171889
4) 鈴木昭広ほか : エアウェイスコープ(R). 日臨麻会誌 27 : 151-158, 2007
5) Hakala P, et al : Comparison between two fibrescopes with different diameter insertion cords for fibreoptic intubation. Anaesthesia 50 : 735-737, 1995
6) Asai T, et al : Difficulty in advancing a tracheal tube over a fibreoptic bronchoscope : incidence, causes and solutions. Br J Anaesth 92 : 870-881, 2004
7) Krugel V, et al : Comparison of the single-use Ambu(R) aScope(TM) 2 vs the conventional fibrescope for tracheal intubation in patients with cervical spine immobilisation by a semirigid collar. Anaesthesia 68 : 21-26, 2013
8) Pujol E, et al : Use of the Ambu(R) aScope(TM) in 10 patients with predicted difficult intubation. Anaesthesia 65 : 1037-1040, 2010
P.44 掲載の参考文献
1) Cook TM, et al : Major complications of airway management in the UK : results of the Fourth National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Difficult Airway Society. Part 1 : anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 106 : 617-631, 2011
2) 中村智之ほか : 第23回 マーフィー孔の重要性を再認識した気道管理トラブルの1症例. ICUとCCU 38 : 136-138, 2014
3) 太田伸一郎ほか : 気管気管支分岐異常71例の検討. 気管支学 8 : 122-130, 1986
4) Chastre J, et al : Ventilator-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165 : 867-903, 2002
5) Safdar N, et al : Clinical and economic consequences of ventilator-associated pneumonia : a systematic review. Crit Care Med 33 : 2184-2193, 2005
6) Muscedere J, et al : Subglottic secretion drainage for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia : a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med 39 : 1985-1991, 2011
7) 浦野博秀ほか : スパイラルチューブの易閉塞性. 日手術医会誌 17 : 120-124, 1996
8) 位田みつるほか : 甲状腺左葉切除術中にスパイラルチューブの内腔狭窄により換気困難となった1症例. 麻酔 63 : 1128-1130, 2014
9) 田山二朗ほか : 喉頭のレーザー手術の基礎と臨床. 日レーザー医会誌 17 : 153-156, 1996
10) 保富宗城ほか : 甲状腺・副甲状腺外科手術における術中神経モニタリング. 耳鼻臨床 107 : 272-273, 2014
P.50 掲載の参考文献
1) 浅井隆 : 挿管困難症およびCICVに対するアプローチ : 成人編. 麻酔 55 : 13-23, 2006
2) 浅井隆 : 観血的気管挿管困難の予測法. Dr. あさいのみんなの気道確保 第2巻 気道確保のエキスパートとなろう!, 中外医学社, 東京, 15-16, 2016
3) Saito T, et al : A proposal for a new scoring system to predict difficult ventilation through a supraglottic airway. Br J Anaesth 117 (Supple) : i83-i86, 2016
4) Asai T : Who is at increased risk of pulmonary aspiration? Br J Anaesth 93 : 497-500, 2004
5) 浅井隆 : 挿管困難時における対応. 麻酔科学スタンダード-臨床総論-, 小川節朗ほか編, 克誠堂出版, 東京, 77-88, 2003
6) Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists. JSA airway management guideline 2014 : to improve the safety of induction of anesthesia. J Anesth 28 : 482-493, 2014
7) Practice guidelines for management of the difficult airway. An updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on management of the difficult airway. Anesthesiology 118 : 251-270, 2013
8) Frerk C, et al : Difficult Airway Society 2015 guidelines for management of unanticipated difficult intubation in adults. Br J Anaesth 115 : 827-848, 2015
9) Asai T, et al : Respiratory complications associated with tracheal intubation and extubation. Brit J Anaesth 80 : 767-775, 1998
11) Jense HG, et al : Effect of obesity on safe duration of apnea in anesthetized humans. Anesth Analg 72 : 89-93, 1991
12) Campbell IT, et al : Monitoring preoxygenation. Br J Anaesth 72 : 3-4, 1994
P.54 掲載の参考文献
1) Toy FJ, et al : A percutaneous tracheostomy device. Surgery 65 : 384-389, 1969
2) Ciaglia P, et al : Elective percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. A new simple bedside procedure ; preliminary report. Chest 87 : 715-719, 1985
3) Schachner A, et al : Percutaneous tracheostomy-a new method. Crit Care Med 17 : 1052-1056, 1989
4) Griggs WM, et al : A simple percutaneous tracheostomy technique. Surg Gynecol Obstet 170 : 543-545, 1990
6) Apfelbaum JL, et al : Practice guidelines for management of the difficult airway : an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Management of the Difficult Airway. Anesthesiology 118 : 251-270, 2013
7) Frerk C, et al : Difficult Airway Society 2015 guidelines for management of unanticipated difficult intubation in adults. Br J Anaesth 115 : 827-848, 2015
8) Cook TM, et al : Major complications of airway management in the UK : results of the 4th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Difficult Airway Society. Part 1 Anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 106 : 632-642, 2011
9) Melker JS, et al : Melker cricothyrotomy kit : an alternative to the surgical technique. Ann Otol Rhino Laryngol 114 : 525-528, 2005

IV 酸素療法

P.59 掲載の参考文献
1) 日本呼吸ケア・リハビリテーション学会, 日本呼吸器学会 : 酸素療法マニュアル, メディカルレビュー社, 東京, 2017
2) 萬知子ほか : 非再呼吸式リザーバマスクの装着具合と供給酸素流量が吸入酸素濃度に及ぼす影響-高機能患者シミュレータを用いた研究-. 日集治療医会誌 21 : 607-613, 2014
3) Hinds WC : Aerosol Technology-Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne Particles, 2nd ed, John Wiley & Sons, 1999
4) Judson SD, et al : Nosocomial transmission of emerging viruses via aerosol-generating medical procedures. Viruses 11 : 940, 2019
P.63 掲載の参考文献
1) 日本呼吸ケア・リハビリテーション学会, 日本呼吸器学会 : 酸素療法マニュアル, メディカルレビュー社, 東京, 2017
2) Helviz Y, et al : A systematic review of the high-flow nasal cannula for adult patients. Crit Care 22 : 71, 2018
3) Motoyasu A, et al : Oxygen at a high flow rate (35 L・min-1) via face mask for preoxygenation. Can J Anaesth 61 : 207-208, 2014
4) 木山秀哉 : Apnoeic. 臨麻 43 : 1359-1366, 2019
5) Patel A, et al : Transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE) : a physiological method of increasing apnoea time in patients with difficult airways. Anaesthesia 70 : 323-329, 2015
6) 日本呼吸器学会 NPPVガイドライン作成委員会編 : NPPVで使用される人工呼吸器とモード. NPPV (非侵襲的陽圧換気療法) ガイドライン 改訂第2版, 11-15, 2015
7) Nava S, et al : Non-invasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Lancet 9685 : 250-259, 2009
8) Agarwal A, et al : High-flow nasal cannula for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19 : systematic reviews of effectiveness and its risks of aerosolization, dispersion, and infection transmission. Can J Anaesth 67 : 1217-1248, 2020

V 呼吸器デバイスの基本構造

P.69 掲載の参考文献
1) Sulbaek Andersen MP, et al : Atmospheric chemistry of isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane : kinetics and mechanisms of reactions with chlorine atoms and OH radicals and global warming potentials. J Phys Chem A 116 : 5806-5820, 2012
2) Ishizawa Y : Special article : general anesthetic gases and the global environment. Anesth Analg 112 : 213-217, 2011
P.75 掲載の参考文献
1) Jain RK, et al : Anaesthesia ventilators. Indian J Anaesth 57 : 525-532, 2013
2) Patil VP, et al : The modern integrated anaesthesia workstation. Indian J Anaesth 57 : 446-454, 2013
3) Wirth S, et al : Application of the novel ventilation mode fLow-controlled expiration (FLEX) : A crossover proof-of-principle study in lung-healthy patients. Anesth Analg 125 : 1246-1252, 2017
4) Schmidt J, et al : Flow-controlled ventilation during ear, nose and throat surgery : A prospective observational study. Eur J Anaesthesiol 36 : 327-334, 2019
5) Barnes T, et al : Minimisation of dissipated energy in the airways during mechanical ventilation by using constant inspiratory and expiratory flows-Flow-controlled ventilation (FCV). Med Hypotheses 121 : 167-176, 2018
6) Tonetti T, et al : Driving pressure and mechanical power : new targets for VILI prevention. Ann Transl Med 5 : 286, 2017
P.76 掲載の参考文献
1) Avidan MS, et al : Prevention of intraoperative awareness with explicit recall : making sense of the evidence. Anesthesiology 118 : 449-456, 2013

VI 医療ガスの基礎知識

P.85 掲載の参考文献
1) 医政発0906 第3号医療ガスの安全管理について
2) JIS T 7101 : 2014 医療ガス配管設備
3) 武田純三 : 日本医療ガス学会のこれから. Medical Gases 19 : 7-9, 2017
4) 元田忠麿 : 医療ガス配管設備とは. クリニカルエンジニアリング 25 : 882-889, 2014
5) 久保仁 : 第10章 ME機器・電気設備・医療ガス. 手術医学 40 : S120-137, 2019
6) 西野京子ほか : 手術中に緊急シャットオフバルブ閉鎖操作が必要となった事例を経験して. Medical Gases 20 : 50-52, 2018
7) 高圧ガス保安法 (昭和26年法律第204号), 平成30年4月1日施行

VII 人工呼吸モード

P.91 掲載の参考文献
1) 一般社団法人日本呼吸療法医学会専門医委員会 : 呼吸療法専門医テキスト 2019, 一般社団法人日本呼吸療法医学会専門医委員会, 東京, 45-46, 2019
2) Petrucci N, et al : Lung protective ventilation strategy for the acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. CD003844, 2013
3) 3学会合同ARDS診療ガイドライン2016作成委員会 : ARDS診療ガイドライン 2016, 総合医学社, 東京, 186, 2016
4) 大塚将秀 : クリティカルケアにおける呼吸管理, 克誠堂出版, 東京, 69, 2013
5) Maura P, et al : Effects of short-term pressure-controlled ventilation on gas exchange, airway pressures, and gas distribution in patients with acute lung injury/ARDS : comparison with volume-controlled ventilation. Chest 122 : 1382-1388, 2002
6) Nuttapol R : Pressure-controlled vs volume-controlled ventilation in acute respiratory failure : A physiology-based narrative and systematic review. Chest 148 : 340-355, 2015
P.95 掲載の参考文献
1) 岡崎智哉 : INTENSIVIST人工呼吸器, メディカルサイエンスインターナショナル, 東京, 528-530, 2018
2) 一般社団法人日本呼吸療法医学会専門医委員会 : 呼吸療法専門医テキスト 2019, 一般社団法人日本呼吸療法医学会専門医委員会, 東京, 62, 2019
3) Qvist J, et al : Hemodynamic responses to mechanical ventilation with PEEP : the effect of hyper volemia. Anesthesiology 42 : 45-55, 1975
4) Devlin JW, et al : Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of pain, agitation/sedation, delirium, immobility, and sleep disruption in adult patients in the ICU. Crit Care Med 46 : e825-e873, 2018
5) Benedicte T, et al : Assist-control ventilation vs. low levels of pressure support ventilation on sleep quality in intubated ICU patients. Intensive Care Medicine 33 : 1148-1154, 2017
P.100 掲載の参考文献
1) 讃井將満ほか : 簡単アンケート 第20弾 : 人工呼吸器の設定と離脱, 2012
2) Kohara J, et al : Derivation and validation of an equation to determine the optimal ventilator setting in children undergoing intracranial revascularization surgery : a single-center retrospective study. Pediatric Anesthesia 30 : 1, 2019
3) Imanaka H, et al : Effect of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation on respiratory workload in infants after cardiac surgery. Anesthesiology 95 : 881-888, 2001
4) Esteban A, et al : A comparison of four methods of weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. N Engl J Med 332 : 345-350, 1995
5) 数馬聡ほか : 同期式間欠的強制換気 (SIMV). 救急・集中治療 31 : 509-511, 2019
6) Duke GJ : Cardiovascular effects of mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Resusc 1 : 388-399, 1999
7) 日本呼吸療法医学会人工呼吸中の鎮静ガイドライン作成委員会 : 人工呼吸中の鎮静のためのガイドライン, 2008. http://square.umin.ac.jp/jrcm/contents/guide/page03.html (2020年10月閲覧)
8) Robinson BR, et al : Patient-ventilator asynchrony in a traumatically injured population. Respir Care 58 : 1847-1855, 2013
P.106 掲載の参考文献
1) 日本集中治療医学会, 日本呼吸療法医学会, 日本呼吸療法医学会 : 人工呼吸器離脱に関する3学会合同プロトコル, 2015
2) 岡元和文ほか : 気管挿管下人工呼吸法. エキスパートの呼吸管理, 中外医学社, 東京, 105-113, 2008
3) 大塚将秀 : PSV, PCV, DCV : 基礎と実践-特徴と適応-. ICUとCCU 41 : 13-20, 2017
4) Yoshida T, et al : The role of spontaneous effort during mechanical ventilation : normal lung versus injured lung. J Intensive Care 3 : 18, 2015
5) Hess DR : Ventilator waveforms and the physiology of pressure support ventilation. Respir Care 50 : 166-183, 2005
6) Epstein SK : How often does patient-ventilator asynchrony occur and what are the consequences? Respir Care 56 : 25-35, 2011
7) Mortamet G : Patient-ventilator asynchrony during conventional mechanical ventilation in children. Ann Intensive Care 7 : 122, 2017
8) 片岡惇ほか : 人工呼吸管理レジデントマニュアル, 医学書院, 東京, 73, 2019
9) Lai H-C, et al : Sevoflurane is an effective adjuvant to propofol based total intravenous anesthesia for attenuating cough reflex in nonintubated video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Medicine 97 : 42, 2018
10) Capdevila X, et al : Effects of pressure support ventilation mode on emergence time and intraoperative ventilatory function : a randomized controlled trial. PLoS One 9 : 12, 2014
P.114 掲載の参考文献
1) Wrigge H, et al Cardiorespiratory effects of automatic tube compensation during airway pressure release ventilation in patients with acute lung injury. Anesthesiology 95 : 382-389, 2001
2) Habashi NM : Other approaches to open-lung ventilation : airway pressure release ventilation. Crit Care Med 33 : S228-240, 2005
3) Neumann P, et al : Dynamics of lung collapse and recruitment during prolonged breathing in porcine lung injury. J Appl Physiol (1985) 85 : 1533-1543, 1998
4) Kollisch-Singule M, et al : Mechanical breath profile of airway pressure release ventilation : the effect on alveolar recruitment and microstrain in acute lung injury. JAMA Surg 149 : 1138-1145, 2014
5) Kaplan LJ, et al : Airway pressure release ventilation increases cardiac performance in patients with acute lung injury/adult respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care 5 : 221-226, 2001
6) Mireles-Cabodevila E, et al : Work of breathing in adaptive pressure control continuous mandatory ventilation. Respir Care 54 : 1467-1472, 2009
7) Iotti GA, et al : Adaptive support ventilation versus conventional ventilation for total ventilatory support in acute respiratory failure. Intensive Care Med 36 : 1371-1379, 2010
8) Fernandez J, et al : Adaptive support ventilation : State of the art review. Indian J Crit Care Med 17 (1) : 16-22, 2013
9) Brower RG, et al : National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ARDS Clinical Trials Network. Higher versus lower positive end-expiratory pressures in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 351 : 327-336, 2004
10) Carteaux G, et al : Bedside adjustment of proportional assist ventilation to target a predefined range of respiratory effort. Crit Care Med 41 : 2125-2132, 2013
11) Sinderby C, et al : Propor tional assist ventilation and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist-better approaches to patient ventilator synchrony? Clin Chest Med 29 : 329-342, vii, 2008
12) Passath C, et al : Physiologic response to changing positive end-expiratory pressure during neutrally adjusted ventilatory assist in sedated, critically ill adults. Chest 37 : 2041-2045, 2010
13) SmartCareR/PS The automated weaning protocol. Draeger Medical Japan Ltd. https://www.draeger.com/library/content/smartcare-booklet.pdf (2020年10月閲覧)
14) Schadler D, et al : Automatic control of pressure support for ventilator weaning in surgical intensive care patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 185 : 637-644, 2012
15) Taniguchi C, et al : Smart Care(TM) versus respiratory physiotherapy-driven manual weaning for critically ill adult patients : a randomized controlled trial. Crit Care 19 : 246, 2015
P.121 掲載の参考文献
1) Peek GJ, et al : Efficacy and economic assessment of conventional ventilatory support versus extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe adult respiratory failure (CESAR) : a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Lancet 374 : 1351-1363, 2009
2) Davies A, et al : Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for 2009 influenza A (H1N1) acute respiratory distress syndrome. JAMA 302 : 1888-1895, 2009
3) Noah MA, et al : Referral to an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation center and mortality among patients with severe 2009 influenza A (H1N1). JAMA 306 : 1659-1668, 2011
4) Brodie D, et al : Extracorporeal life support for adults with respiratory failure and related indications : a review. JAMA 322 : 557-568, 2019
5) ELSO Adult Respiratory Failure Guidelines 2017
6) Umei N, et al : Successful use of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to lung T transplantation in a patient with pulmonary fibrosis. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 65 : 478-480, 2017
7) ELSO Adult Cardiac Failure Supplement to the ELSO General Guidelines, 2013
P.126 掲載の参考文献
1) Zapol WM : Nitric oxide story. Anesthesiology 130 : 435-440, 2019
2) Frostell C, et al : Inhaled nitric oxide. A selective pulmonary vasodilator reversing hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Circulation 83 : 2038-2047, 1991
3) Roberts JD Jr, et al : Inhaled nitric oxide and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. The Inhaled Nitric Oxide Study Group. N Engl J Med 336 : 605-610, 1997
4) Bloch KD, et al : Inhaled NO as a therapeutic agent. Cardiovasc Res 75 : 339-348, 2007
5) Ichinose F, et al : Inhaled nitric oxide : a selective pulmonary vasodilator : current uses and therapeutic potential. Circulation 109 : 3106-3111, 2004
6) Kelm M : Nitric oxide metabolism and breakdown. 6 Biochim Biophys Acta 1411 : 273-289, 1999
7) Ignarro LJ, et al : Oxidation of nitric oxide in aqueous solution to nitrite but not nitrate : comparison with enzymatically formed nitric oxide from L-arginine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90 : 8103-8107, 1993
8) 鈴木悟 : NO吸入療法の現状と可能性. Medical Gases 18 : 58-62, 2016
9) Yu B, et al : Inhaled nitric oxide. Br J Pharmacol 176 : 246-255, 2019
10) Thadani U, et al : Side effects of using nitrates to treat angina. Expert Opin Drug Saf 5 : 667-674, 2006
11) Oliveira-Paula GH, et al : Mechanisms impairing blood pressure responses to nitrite and nitrate. Nitric Oxide 85 : 35-43, 2019
12) Bhorade S, et al : Response to inhaled nitric oxide in patients with acute right heart syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159 : 571-579, 1999
13) Hataishi R, et al : Inhaled nitric oxide decreases infarction size and improves left ventricular function in a murine model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 291 : H379-384, 2006
14) Liu X, et al : Nitric oxide inhalation improves microvascular flow and decreases infarction size after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. J Am Coll Cardiol 50 : 808-817, 2007
15) Nagasaka Y, et al : Brief periods of nitric oxide inhalation protect against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Anesthesiology 109 : 675-682, 2008
16) Nagasaka Y, et al : Pharmacological preconditioning with inhaled nitric oxide (NO) : Organ-specific differences in the lifetime of blood and tissue NO metabolites. Nitric Oxide 80 : 52-60, 2018
17) Nagasaka Y, et al : Soluble guanylate cyclase-alpha 1 is required for the cardioprotective effects of inhaled nitric oxide. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 300 : H1477-1483, 2011
18) Ibrahim YI, et al : Inhaled nitric oxide therapy increases blood nitrite, nitrate, and s-nitrosohemoglobin concentrations in infants with pulmonary hypertension. J Pediatr 160 : 245-251, 2012
19) Tonelli AR, et al : A pilot study on the kinetics of metabolites and microvascular cutaneous effects of nitric oxide inhalation in healthy volunteers. PLoS One 14 : e0221777, 2019
20) Bellani G, et al : Epidemiology, patterns of care, and mortality for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome in intensive care units in 50 countries. JAMA 315 : 788-800, 2016
21) Gebistorf F, et al : Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in children and adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (6) : CD002787, 2016
22) Bronicki RA, et al : Multicenter randomized controlled trial of inhaled nitric oxide for pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Pediatr 166 : 365-369 e1, 2015
23) Dowell JC, et al : Association of response to inhaled nitric oxide and duration of mechanical ventilation in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatr Crit Care Med 18 : 1019-1026, 2017
24) Moulaert VR, et al : Cognitive impairments in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest : a systematic review. Resuscitation 80 : 297-305, 2009
25) Minamishima S, et al : Inhaled nitric oxide improves outcomes after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation in mice. Circulation 124 : 1645-1653, 2011
26) Kida K, et al : Beneficial effects of nitric oxide on outcomes after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in hypothermia-treated mice. Anesthesiology 120 : 880-889, 2014
27) Brucken A, et al : Effects of inhaled nitric oxide on outcome after prolonged cardiac arrest in mild therapeutic hypothermia treated rats. Sci Rep 8 : 6743, 2018
28) Aboursheid T, et al : Inhaled nitric oxide for treating pain crises in people with sickle cell disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 10 : CD011808, 2019
29) Al Hajeri A, et al : Inhaled nitric oxide for acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD006957, 2008
30) Berra L, et al : Autologous transfusion of stored red blood cells increases pulmonary artery pressure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 190 : 800-807, 2014
31) Lei C, et al : Nitric oxide decreases acute kidney injury and stage 3 chronic kidney disease after cardiac surgery. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 198 : 1279-1287, 2018

VIII 人工呼吸器管理の考えかた

P.133 掲載の参考文献
1) Ashbaugh DG, et al : Acute respiratory distress in adults. Lancet 2 : 319-323, 1967
2) Phua J, et al : Has mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome decreased over time? : A systematic review. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 179 : 220-227, 2009
3) Force ADT, et al : Acute respiratory distress syndrome : the Berlin Definition. JAMA 307 : 2526-2533, 2012
4) Ferring M, et al : Is outcome from ARDS related to the severity of respiratory failure? Eur Respir J 10 : 1297-1300, 1997
5) Gattinoni L, et al : The Concept of "Baby Lung". Intensive Care Med 31 : 776-784, 2005
6) Amato MB, et al : Effect of a protective-ventilation strategy on mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 338 : 347-354, 1998
7) The acute respiratory distress syndrome network. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 342 : 1301-1308, 2000
8) Brochard L, et al : Tidal volume reduction for prevention of ventilator induced lung injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome. The multicenter trial group on tidal volume reduction in ARDS. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158 : 1831-1838, 1998
9) Brower RG, et al : Prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial comparing traditional versus reduced tidal volume ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. Crit Care Med 27 : 1492-1498, 1999
10) Stewart TE, et al : Evaluation of a ventilation strategy to prevent barotrauma in patient at high risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome : pressure and volume limited ventilation strategy group. N Engl J Med 338 : 355-361, 1998
11) Villar J, et al : A high positive end-expiration pressure, low tidal volume ventilatory strategy improves outcome in persistent acute respiratory distress syndrome : a randomized, controlled trial. Crit Care Med 34 : 1311-1318, 2006
13) Goligher EC, et al : Mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragm atrophy strongly impacts clinical outcomes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 197 : 204-213, 2018
14) Forel JM, et al : Neuromuscular blocking agents decrease inflammatory response in patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med 34 : 2749-2757, 2006
15) Gainnier M, et al : Effect of neuromuscular blocking agents on gas exchange in patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med 32 : 113-119, 2004
16) Lagneau F, et al : A comparison of two depths of prolonged neuromuscular blockade induced by cisatracurium in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med 28 : 1735-1741, 2002
17) Papazian L, et al : ACURASYS Study Investigators. Neuromuscular blockers in early acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 363 : 1107-1116, 2010
18) Rittayamai N, et al : Positive and negative effects of mechanical ventilation on sleep in the ICU : a review with clinical recommendations. Intensive Care Med 42 : 531-541, 2016
19) Grieco DL, et al : Patient-self inflicted lung injury : implications for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS patients on non-invasive support. Miner va Anaesthesiol 85 : 1014-1012, 2019
20) Yoshida T, et al : Esophageal manometry and regional transpulmonary pressure in lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 197 : 1018-1026, 2018
21) Haitsma JJ, et al : Lung protective ventilatin in ARDS : the open lung maneuver. Minerva Anesthesiol 72 : 117-132, 2006
22) Maisch S, et al : Compliance and dead space fraction indicate an optimal level of positive end-expiratory pressure after recruitment in anesthetized patients. Anesth Analg 106 : 175-181, 2008
23) 2PROVE Network Investigators for the Clinical Trial Network of the European Society of Anaesthesiology ; Hemmes SN, et al : High versus low positive endexpiratory pressure during general anaesthesia for open abdominal surgery (PROVHILO trial) : a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 384 : 495-503, 2014
24) Ferrando C, et al : Individualised perioperative open-lung approach versus standard protective ventilation in abdominal surgery (iPROVE) : a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med 6 : 193-203, 2018
25) Brochard L, et al : Mechanical ventilation to minimize progression of lung injury in acute respiratory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 195 : 438-442, 2017
26) Petersson J, et al : Positive end-expiratory pressure redistributes regional blood flow and ventilation differently in supine and prone humans. Anesthesiology 113 : 1361-1369, 2010
P.139 掲載の参考文献
1) Putensen C, et al : Spontaneous breathing during ventilatory support improves ventilation-perfusion distribution in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159 : 241-248, 1999
2) Putensen C, et al : Long-term effects of spontaneous breathing during ventilatory support in patients with acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 164 : 43-49, 2001
3) Langer T, et al : "Awake" Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) : Pathophysiology, technical considerations, and clinical pioneering. Crit Care 20 : 150, 2016
4) Neumann P, et al : Spontaneous breathing af fects the spatial ventilation and per fusion distribution during mechanical ventilatory support. Crit Care Med 33 : 1090-1095, 2005
5) Vassilakopoulos T, et al : Respiratory muscles and weaning failure. Eur Respir J 9 : 2383-2400, 1996
6) Powers SK, et al : Ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction : cause and effect. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 305 : R464-477, 2013
7) Wigge H, et al : Spontaneous breathing improves lung aeration in oleic acid-induced lung injury. Anesthesiology 99 : 376-384, 2003
8) Yoshida T, et al : Spontaneous effort during mechanical ventilation : maximal injury with less positive endexpiratory pressure. Crit Care Med 44 : e678-688, 2016
9) Yoshida T, et al : The comparison of spontaneous breathing and muscle paralysis in two different severities of experimental lung injury. Crit Care Med 41 : 536-545, 2013
10) Yoshida T, et al. Spontaneous ef fort causes occult pendelluft during mechanical ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 188 : 1420-1427, 2013
11) Papazian L, et al : Neuromuscular blockers in early acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 363 : 1107-1116, 2010
12) National Heart, et al : Early neuromuscular blockade in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 380 : 1997-2008, 2019
13) Hraiech S, et al : Balancing neuromuscular blockade versus preserved muscle activity. Curr Opin Crit Care 21 : 26-33, 2015
P.141 掲載の参考文献
1) Talmor D, et al : Mechanical ventilation guided by esophageal pressure in acute lung injury. N Engl J Med 359 : 2095-2104, 2008
2) 佐藤暢一 : 人工呼吸下のモニタリング : 呼吸療法専門医 筆記試験項目 解説集, 日本呼吸療法医学会, 23-30, 2019
P.146 掲載の参考文献
2) Canet J, et al : Prediction of postoperative pulmonary complications in a population based surgical cohort. Anesthesiology 113 : 1338e50, 2010
3) Neto AS, et al : Protective versus conventional ventilation for surgery. Anesthesiology 123 : 66-78, 2015
4) Neto AS, et al : Association between driving pressure and development of postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for general anaesthesia : a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Lancet Respir Med 4 : 272-280, 2016
5) Ostberg E, et al : Positive end-expiratory pressure alone minimizes atelectasis formation in nonabdominal surgery. Anesthesiology 128 : 1117-1124, 2018
6) Shono A, et al : Positive end-expiratory pressure and distribution of ventilation in pneumoperitoneum combined with steep trendelenburg position. Anesthesiology doi : 10.1097/ALN.0000000000003062
7) Chua MT, at al : Pre- and Apnoeic high flow oxygenation for RApid sequence intubation in The Emergency depar tment (Pre-AeRATE) : study protocol for a multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Trials 20 : 195, 2019
8) Young CC, et al : Lung-protective ventilation for the surgical patient : international expert panel-based consensus recommendations. Brit J Anaesth 123 : 898-913, 2019
9) Pereira SM, et al : Individual positive end-expiratory pressure settings optimize intraoperative mechanical ventilation and reduce postoperative atelectasis. Anesthesiology 129 : 1070-1081, 2018
P.152 掲載の参考文献
1) Hashimoto S, et al : The clinical practice guideline for the management of ARDS in Japan. J Intensive Care 5 : 50, 2017
2) Neto AS, et al : Lung-protective ventilation with low tidal volumes and the occurrence of pulmonary complications in patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome : a systematic review and individual patient data analysis. Crit Care Med 43 : 2155-2163, 2015
3) Wolthuis EK, et al : Mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volumes and positive end-expiratory pressure prevents pulmonary inflammation in patients without preexisting lung injury. Anesthesiology 108 : 46-54, 2008
4) Deng QW, et al : Intraoperative ventilation strategies to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications : a network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Anaesth 124 : 324-335, 2020
5) Yang D, et al : A Meta-analysis of intraoperative ventilation strategies to prevent pulmonary complications : Is low tidal volume alone sufficient to protect healthy lungs? Ann Surg 263 : 881-887, 2016
6) Futier E, et al : A trial of intraoperative low-tidal-volume ventilation in abdominal surgery. N Engl J Med 369 : 428-437, 2013
7) Futier E, et al : Positive end-expiratory pressure improves end-expiratory lung volume but not oxygenation after induction of anaesthesia. Eur J Anaesthesiol 27 : 508-513, 2010
8) Ostberg E, et al : Positive end-expiratory pressure alone minimizes atelectasis formation in nonabdominal surgery : a randomized controlled trial. Anesthesiology 128 : 1117-1124, 2018
9) Wir th S, et al : Intraoperative positive end-expiratory pressure evaluation using the intratidal compliance-volume profile. Br J Anaesth 114 : 483-490, 2015
10) Guldner A, et al : Intraoperative protective mechanical ventilation for prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications : a comprehensive review of the role of tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure, and lung recruitment maneuvers. Anesthesiology 123 : 692-713, 2015
11) Young CC, et al : Lung-protective ventilation for the surgical patient : international expert panel-based consensus recommendations. Br J Anaesth 123 : 898-913, 2019
12) Neto AS, et al : Association between driving pressure and development of postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for general anaesthesia : a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Lancet Resp Med 4 : 272-280, 2016
13) Magnusson L, et al : New concepts of atelectasis during general anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 91 : 61-72, 2003
14) Edmark L, et al : Optimal oxygen concentration during induction of general anesthesia. Anesthesiology 98 : 28-33, 2003
15) Suzuki S, et al : Atelectasis and mechanical ventilation mode during conservative oxygen therapy : A before-and-after study. J Crit Care 30 : 1232-1237, 2015
16) Panwar R, et al : Conservative versus liberal oxygenation targets for mechanically ventilated patients. A pilot multicenter randomized controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 193 : 43-51, 2016
17) Girardis M, et al : Effect of conservative vs conventional oxygen therapy on mortality among patients in an intensive care unit : The oxygen-ICU randomized clinical trial. JAMA 316 : 1583-1589, 2016
18) Investigators I-R, et al : Conservative oxygen therapy during mechanical ventilation in the ICU. N Engl J Med 382 : 989-998, 2020
19) Pedersen T, et al : Pulse oximetry for perioperative monitoring : systematic review of randomized, controlled trials. Anesth Analg 96 : 426-431, table of contents, 2003
P.155 掲載の参考文献
1) ART Investigators : Rationale, study design, and analysis plan of the Alveolar Recruitment for ARDS Trial (ART) : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 13 : 153, 2012
2) 佐藤暢一 : 基本的換気モード. ICUとCCU 43 : 301-307, 2019
3) Cavalcanti AB, et al : Effect of lung recruitment and titrated positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) vs low PEEP on mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome : A randomized clinical trial. JAMA 318 : 1335-1345, 2017
P.161 掲載の参考文献
1) Jeong BH, et al : Development of a prediction rule for estimating postoperative pulmonary complications. PloS One 9 : e0113656, 2014
2) Canet J, et al : Prediction of postoperative pulmonary complications in a population-based surgical cohort. Anesthesiology 113 : 1138-1150, 2010
3) Duggan M, et al : Perioperative modification of respiratory function. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 24 : 145-155, 2010
4) 大塚将秀 : 成人における気管チューブの抜管基準. 日集中医誌 19 : 340-345, 2012
5) 日本呼吸療法医学会・日本集中治療医学会・日本クリティカルケア看護学会 3学会合同人工呼吸器離脱ワーキング : 人工呼吸器離脱に関する3学会合同プロトコル, 2019. http://square.umin.ac.jp/jrcm/pdf/pubcome00701.pdf (2020年10月閲覧)
P.165 掲載の参考文献
1) MacIntyre NR, et al : Management of patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation : report of a NAMDRC consensus conference. Chest 128 : 3937-3954, 2005
2) Esteban A, et al : Characteristics and outcomes in adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation : a 28-day international study. JAMA 287 : 345-355, 2002
3) 日本呼吸療法医学会・日本集中治療医学会・日本クリティカルケア看護学会 3学会合同人工呼吸器離脱ワーキング : 人工呼吸器離脱に関する3学会合同プロトコル, 2019. http://square.umin.ac.jp/jrcm/pdf/pubcome00701.pdf (2020年10月閲覧)
4) Vasilevskis EE, et al : Reducing iatrogenic risks : ICU-acquired delirium and weakness-crossing the quality chasm. Chest 138 : 1224-1233, 2010
5) Devlin JW, et al : Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of pain, agitation/sedation, delirium, immobility, and sleep disruption in adult patients in the ICU. Crit Care Med 46 : e825-873, 2018
6) Ely EW : The utility of weaning protocols to expedite liberation from mechanical ventilation. Respir Care Clin N Am 6 : 303-319, 2000
7) McConville JF, et al : Weaning patients from the ventilator. N Engl J Med 367 : 2233-2239, 2012
P.169 掲載の参考文献
1) Branson RD : Humidification of inspired gases during mechanical ventilation. Resp Care 38 : 461-768, 1993
2) 宮尾秀樹ほか : 人工呼吸中の適切な加温加湿. 人工呼吸 19 : 3-11, 2002
3) 磨田裕 : 加温加湿と気道管理. 人工気道での加温加湿をめぐる諸問題. 人工呼吸 27 : 57-63, 2010
4) American association for respiratory care : Humidification during invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Resp Care 57 : 782-787, 2012
5) Miyao H, et al : Relative humidity, not absolute humidity, is important when using a humidifier with a heating wire. Crit Care Med 20 : 674-679, 1992
6) 官川響ほか : 気管チューブ内腔への吸気ガス湿度の影響-人工呼吸中の分泌物固形化について-. 埼玉医科大学雑誌 28 : 89-94, 2001
7) Prin S, et al : Ability and safety of a heated humidifier to control hypercapnic acidosis in severe ARDS. Inrensive Care Med 28 : 1756-1760, 2002
8) Moran I, et al : Heat and moisture exchangers and heated humidifiers in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. Effects on respiratory mechanics and gas change. Intensive Care Med 32 : 524-531, 2006
9) Girault C, et al : Mechanical effects of airway humidification devices in difficult to wean patients. Crit Care Med 31 : 1306-1311, 2003
10) 医薬品医療機器総合機構PMDA医療安全情報 : 人工呼吸器の取扱い時の注意について (その1). No7. 2009年1月
11) 秋元郁美ほか : 人工鼻フィルター (HMEF) が加湿不足あるいは加湿過剰をきたす換気条件に関する定量的研究. 医機学 84 : 349-353, 2014
12) Menegueti MG, et al : Effectiveness of heat and moisture exchangers in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients : a meta-analysis. BMC Anesthesiol 14 : 115, 2014
13) Vargas M, et al : Heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) and heated humidifiers (HHs) in adult critically ill patients : a systematic review, meta-analysis and metaregression of randomized controlled trials. Crit Care 29 : 123, 2017
P.177 掲載の参考文献
1) Motoyama EK : Effects of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) on respiratory mechanics and oxygen saturation (SpO2) in infants and children under general anesthesia. Anesthesiology 85 : A1099, 1996
2) von Ungern-Sternberg BS, et al : Decrease of functional residual capacity and ventilation homogeneity after neuromuscular blockade in anesthetized young infants and preschool children. Anesthesiology 105 : 670-675, 2006
3) Papastamelos C, et al : Development changes in chest wall compliance in infancy and early childhood. J Appl Physiol 78 : 179-184, 1995
4) Eckenhoff JE : Some anatomic considerations of the infant larynx influencing endotracheal anesthesia. Anesthesiology 12 : 401-410, 1951
5) Litman RS, et al : Developmental changes of laryngeal dimensions in unparalyzed, sedated children. Anesthesiology 98 : 41-45, 2003
6) Dalal PG, et al : Pediatric laryngeal dimensions : an age-based analysis. Anesth Analg 108 : 1475-1479, 2009
7) Weiss M, et al : Prospective randomized controlled multi-centre trial of cuffed or uncuffed endotracheal tubes in small children. ; European Paediatric Endotracheal Intubation Study Group. Br J Anaesth 103 : 867-873, 2009
8) Newth CJ, et al : The use of cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes in pediatric intensive care. J Pediatr 144 : 333-337, 2004
9) Thomas RE, et al : Cuffed endotracheal tubes in infants less than 3kg : a retrospective cohort study. Paediatr Anaesth 28 : 204-209, 2018
10) Sathyamoorthy M, et al : Stridor in neonates after using the Microcuff(R) and uncuffed tracheal tubes : a retrospective review. Anesth Analg 121 : 1321-1324, 2015
11) Sathyamoorthy M, et al : Inspiratory stridor after tracheal intubation with a MicroCuff(R) tracheal tube in three young infants. Anesthesiology 118 : 748-750, 2013
12) Shibasaki M, et al : National sur vey of attitudes and practices of endotracheal tube management in infants and small children in Japan. Open J Anesthesiol 9 : 9-22, 2019
13) Takeuchi M, et al : Effect of patient-triggered ventilation on respiratory workload in infants after cardiac surgery. Anesthesiology 93 : 1238-1244, 2000
14) Kepreotes E, et al : High-flow warm humidified oxygen versus standard low-flow nasal cannula oxygen for moderate bronchiolitis (HFWHO RCT) : an open, phase 4, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 389 : 930-939, 2017
15) Franklin D, et al : A randomized trial of high-flow oxygen therapy in infants with bronchiolitis. N Engl J Med 378 : 1121-1131, 2018
16) Testa G, et al : Comparative evaluation of high-flow nasal cannula and conventional oxygen therapy in paediatric cardiac surgical patients : a randomized controlled trial. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 19 : 456-461, 2014
17) Essouri S, et al : Physiological effects of noninvasive positive ventilation during acute moderate hypercapnic respiratory insufficiency in children. Intensive Care Med 34 : 228-255, 2008
18) Young D, et al : High-frequency oscillation for acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 368 : 806-813, 2013
19) Ferguson ND, et al : High-frequency oscillation in early acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 308 : 795-805, 2013
20) Kallio M, et al : Neurally adjusted ventilator assist (NAVA) in pediatric intensive care a randomized controlled trial. Pediatr Pulmonol 50 : 55-62, 2015
P.187 掲載の参考文献
1) Waring JP, et al : Guidelines for conscious sedation and monitoring during gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 58 : 317-322, 2003
2) 日本光電 : Spo2 Monitoring Performance Digest. https://mx.nihonkohden.com/sites/default/files/u21/SpO2-performance-digest.pdf (2020年10月閲覧)
3) Goldman JM, et al : Masimo signal extraction pulse oximetry. J Clin Monit Comput 16 : 475-483, 2000
4) 日本光電 : プローブ装着のポイント. https://www.nihonkohden.co.jp/iryo/point/spo2point/point.html (2020年10月閲覧)
5) 平田直之ほか : Oxygen Reserve Index : 新しい酸素化モニターの可能性. 臨床麻酔 40 : 1391-1397, 2016
6) Shah N, et al : Performance of three new-generation pulse oximeters during motion and low perfusion in volunteers. J Clin Anesth 24 : 385-391, 2012
7) Louie A, et al : Four types of pulse oximeters accurately detect hypoxia during low per fusion and motion. Anesthesiology 128 : 520-530, 2018
8) Cannesson M, et al : Pleth variability index to monitor the respiratory variations in the pulse oximeter plethysmographic waveform amplitude and predict fluid responsiveness in the operating theatre. Br J Anaesth 101 : 200-206, 2008
9) Kodali BS : Capnography.com. https://www.Capnography.com (2020年7月閲覧)
10) Bhavani-Shankar K, et al : Terminology and the current limitations of time capnography : a brief review. J Clin Monit 11 : 175-182, 1995
11) Capnography.com : Negative (a-ET) PCO2 differences. https://www.capnography.com/physiology/negative-aetpco2-differences (2020年10月閲覧)
12) Jaffe MB : Using the features of the time and volumetric capnogram for classification and prediction. J Clin Monit Comput 31 : 19-41, 2017
13) Verscheure S, et al : Volumetric capnography : lessons from the past and current clinical applications. Crit Care 20 : 184, 2016
14) Capnography.com : Physical Method of CO2 Measurement. https://www.capnography.com/physics/physicalmethods-of-co2-measurement (2020年10月閲覧)
15) 日本光電 : サイドストリームとメインストリーム. https://www.nihonkohden.co.jp/iryo/techinfo/co2sensor/stream.html (2020年10月閲覧)
16) 日本麻酔科学会 : 日本麻酔科学会気道管理ガイドライン 2014 (日本語訳) より安全な麻酔導入のために. http://anesth.or.jp/files/pdf/20150427-2guidelin.pdf (2020年10月閲覧)
17) Paiva EF, et al : The use of end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) measurement to guide management of cardiac arrest : A systematic review. Resuscitation 123 : 1-7, 2018
18) Shibutani K, et al : Do changes in end-tidal PCO2 quantitatively reflect changes in cardiac output? Anesth Analg 79 : 829-833, 1994
P.190 掲載の参考文献
1) 佐藤暢一 : 人工呼吸下のモニタリング : 呼吸療法専門医 筆記試験項目 解説集, 日本呼吸療法医学会, 23-30, 2019
P.193 掲載の参考文献
1) 重田誠ほか : 気道抵抗と呼吸抵抗の基礎と臨床. 日小児呼吸器会誌 6 : 120-125, 1995
2) 佐藤暢一 : 高機能麻酔装置をどのように使うのか? ~術中呼吸管理の考え方~. 臨麻 43 : 153-162 : 2019
P.195 掲載の参考文献
1) Society of Anesthesiologists : Practice guidelines for sedation and analgesia by non-anesthesiologists. An updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists task force on sedation and analgesia by non-anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology 96 : 1004-1017, 2002
2) 小原勝敏ほか : 内視鏡診療における鎮静に関するガイドライン. 日消内視鏡会誌 55 : 3822-3847, 2013
3) Levine RL, et al : End-tidal carbon dioxide and outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 337 : 301-306, 1997
P.200 掲載の参考文献
1) Ramsingh D, et al : Auscultation versus point-of-care ultrasound to determine endotracheal versus bronchial intubation : A diagnostic accuracy study. Anesthesiology 124 : 1012-1020, 2016
2) Parab SY, et al : A prospective randomized controlled double-blind study comparing auscultation and lung ultrasonography in the assessment of double lumen tube position in elective thoracic surgeries involving one lung ventilation at a tertiary care cancer institute. Korean J Anesthesiol 72 : 24-31, 2019
3) Ding W, et al : Diagnosis of pneumothorax by radiography and ultrasonography : a meta-analysis. Chest 140 : 859-866, 2011
4) Volpicelli G : Sonographic diagnosis of pneumothorax. Intensive Care Med 37 : 224-232, 2011
5) Volpicelli G, et al : Semi-quantification of pneumothorax volume by lung ultrasound. Intensive Care Med 40 : 1460-1467, 2014
6) Lictenstein D, et al : The dynamic air bronchogram. A lung ultrasound sign of alveolar consolidation ruling out atelectasis. Chest 135 : 1421-1425, 2009
7) Soldati G, et al : The use of lung ultrasound images for the differential diagnosis of pulmonary and cardiac interstitial pathology. J Ultrasound 20 : 91-96, 2017
8) Gargani L, et al : How I do it : lung ultrasound. Cardiovasc Ultrasound 12 : 25, 2014
9) Agricola E, et al : "Ultrasound comet-tail images" : a marker of pulmonary edema : a comparative study with wedge pressure and extravascular lung water. Chest 127 : 1690-1695, 2005
10) Osman AM, et al : Diaphragmatic and lung ultrasound application as new predictive indices for the weaning process in ICU patients. Egypt J Radiol Nucl 48 : 61-66, 2017
11) Soummer A, et al : Ultrasound assessment of lung aeration loss during a successful weaning trial predicts postextubation distress*. Crit Care Med 40 : 2064-2072, 2012
12) Llamas-Alvarez AM, et al : Diaphragm and lung ultrasound to predict weaning outcome : systematic review and meta-analysis. Chest 152 : 1140-1150, 2017
13) Boussuges A, et al : Diaphragmatic motion studied by M-mode ultrasonography : methods, reproducibility, and normal values. Chest 135 : 391-400, 2009
P.202 掲載の参考文献
1) Nieman GF, et al : Personalizing mechanical ventilation according to physiologic parameters to stabilize alveoli and minimize ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). Intensive Care Med Exp 5 : 8, 2017
2) Shono A, et al : Clinical implication of monitoring regional ventilation using electrical impedance tomography. J Intensive Care 7 : 4, 2019
3) Bachmann MC, et al : Electrical impedance tomography in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care 22 : 263, 2018
4) Wolf GK, et al : Mechanical ventilation guided by electrical impedance tomography in experimental acute lung injury. Crit Care Med 41 : 1296-1304, 2013
5) Frerichs I, et al : Chest electrical impedance tomography examination, data analysis, terminology, clinical use and recommendations : consensus statement of the TRanslational EIT developmeNt stuDy group. Thorax 72 : 83-93, 2017

IX 合併疾患を有する患者の術中管理

P.207 掲載の参考文献
1) 桑原沙代子ほか : 慢性閉塞性肺疾患 (COPD) の急性増悪. 救急・集中治療 29 : 655-661, 2017
2) Ballantyne JC, et al : The comparative effects of postoperative analgesic therapies on pulmonary outcome : cumulative meta-analyses of randomized, controlled trials. Anesth Analg 86 : 598-612, 1998
3) Jayr C, et al : Postoperative pulmonary complications. epidural analgesia using bupivacaine and opioids versus parenteral opioids. Anesthesiology 78 : 666-676, 1993
4) 萩平哲 : 気管支喘息と慢性気管支炎. 麻酔 64 : 934-941, 2015
5) Yamakage M, et al : Guideline-oriented perioperative management of patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Anesth 22 : 412-428, 2008
6) Scalfaro P, et al : Salbutamol prevents the increase of respiratory resistance caused by tracheal intubation during sevoflurane anesthesia in asthmatic children. Anesth Analg 93 : 898-902, 2001
7) Groeben H, et al : Combined intravenous lidocaine and inhaled salbutamol protect against bronchial hyperreactivity more effectively than lidocaine or salbutamol alone. Anesthesiology 89 : 862-868, 1998
8) Leatherman J : Mechanical ventilation for severe asthma. Chest 147 : 1671-1680, 2015
9) Tuxen DV : Detrimental effects of positive end-expiratory pressure during controlled mechanical ventilation of patients with severe airflow obstruction. Am Rev Respir Dis 140 : 5-9, 1989
P.211 掲載の参考文献
1) Travis WD, et al : An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement : Update of the international multidisciplinary classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 188 : 733-748, 2013
2) Collard HR, et al : Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A international working group report. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 194 : 265-275, 2016
3) Sato T, et al : A simple risk scoring system for predicting acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia after pulmonary resection in lung cancer patients. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 63 : 164-172, 2015
4) 岡本竜哉ほか : 特発性肺線維症 (IPF) の臨床的検討-急性増悪例の解析-. 日呼吸会誌 44 : 359-367, 2006
5) 杉野圭史 : 間質性肺炎の診断と治療. 日呼ケアリハ学誌 28 : 190-195, 2019
6) Husain LF, et al : Sonographic diagnosis of pneumothorax. J Emerg Trauma Shock 5 : 76-81, 2012
7) 厚生労働省科学研究費補助金難治性疾患政策研究事業「びまん性肺疾患に関する調査研究」班特発性肺線維症の治療ガイドライン作成委員会 : 特発性肺線維症の治療ガイドライン 2017, 南江堂, 東京, 2017
8) 横山俊樹ほか : 間質性肺炎急性増悪の診断と治療. Jpn Respir Care 36 : 32-36, 2019
9) Mallick S et al : Outcome of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) ventilated in intensive care unit. Respir Med 102 : 1355-1359, 2008
10) Yokoyama T, et al : Potential benefits of early continuous positive pressure ventilation in patients with rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia. Respirology 17 : 315-321, 2012
11) Koyauchi T, et al : Efficacy and tolerability of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy for hypoxemic respiratory failure in patients with interstitial lung disease with do-not-intubate orders : A retrospective single-center study. Respiration 96 : 323-329, 2018
P.216 掲載の参考文献
1) 日本肥満学会肥満症診断基準検討委員会 : 新しい肥満の判定と肥満症の診断基準. 肥満研究 6 : 18-28, 2000
2) 厚生労働省 : 平成29年国民健康・栄養調査報告, 東京, 2017
3) Hodgson LE, et al : Respiratory management of the obese patient undergoing surgery. J Thorac Dis 7 : 943-952, 2015
4) Kristensen MS : Airway management and morbid obesity. Eur J Anaesthesiol 27 : 923-927, 2010
5) Jaber S, et al : A multicentre observational study of intra-operative ventilatory management during general anaesthesia : tidal volumes and relation to body weight. Anaesthesia 67 : 999-1008, 2012
6) Whalen FX, et al : The effects of the alveolar recruitment maneuver and positive end-expiratory pressure on arterial oxygenation during laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Anesth Analg 102 : 298-305, 2006
7) Ferrando C, et al : Open lung approach versus standard protective strategies : Effects on driving pressure and ventilatory ef ficiency during anesthesia-A pilot, randomized controlled trial. PLoS One 12 : e0177399, 2017
8) Liao P, et al : Perioperative auto-titrated continuous positive airway pressure treatment in surgical patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Anesthesiology 119 : 837-847, 2013
9) 米国睡眠医学会 : 睡眠障害国際分類, 第3版, 日本睡眠学会診断分類委員会訳, ライフ・サイエンス, 東京, 26, 2018
10) Malhotra A, et al : Obstructive sleep apnoea. Lancet 360 : 237-245, 2002
11) Young T, et al : The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults. N Engl J Med 328 : 1230-1235, 1993
12) 尾下豪人ほか : 閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸症候群のリスク評価における日本語版STOP-Bangテストの有用性. 日本プライマリ・ケア連合学会誌 42 : 26-31, 2019
13) Alexa A, et al : Primary central sleep apnea and anesthesia : a retrospective case series. Can J Anesth/J Can Anesth 65 : 884-892, 2018
14) Lam KK, et al : Obstructive sleep apnea, pain, and opioids : is the riddle solved? Curr Opin Anesthesiol 29 : 134-140, 2016
15) Masa JF, et al : Obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Eur Respir Rev 28 : 180097, 2019
P.217 掲載の参考文献
1) Thompson AG, et al : A risk stratifying tool to facilitate safe late-stage percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in ALS. Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener 18 : 243-248, 2017
2) Hoeper AM, et al : Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and anesthesia : a case series and review of the literature. J Anesth 33 : 257-265, 2019

X 手術と呼吸管理 各論

P.223 掲載の参考文献
1) Perrin M, et al : Laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Continuing Education in Anaesthesia. Critical Care & Pain 4 : 107-111, 2004
2) Ezri T, et al : The endotracheal tube moves more often in obese patients undergoing laparoscopy compared with open abdominal surgery. Anesth Analg 96 : 278-282, 2003
3) Bruintjes MH, et al : Deep neuromuscular block to optimize surgical space conditions during laparoscopic surgery : a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth 118 : 834-842, 2017
4) Pereira SM, et al : Individual positive end-expiratory pressure settings optimize intraoperative mechanical ventilation and reduce postoperative atelectasis. Anesthesiology 129 : 1070-1081, 2018
5) Ferrando C, et al : Individualised perioperative open-lung approach versus standard protective ventilation in abdominal surgery (iPROVE) : a randomized controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med 6 : 193-203, 2018
6) Kacmarek RM, et al : Lung-protective ventilation in the operating room. Anesthesiology 129 : 1057-1059, 2018
7) Grieco DL, et al : Airway closure during surgical pneumoperitoneum in obese patients. Anesthesiology 131 : 58-73, 2019
8) Futier E, et al : Intraoperative recruitment maneuver reverses detrimental pneumoperitoneum-induced respiratory effects in healthy weight and obese patients undergoing laparoscopy. Anesthesiology 113 : 1310-1319, 2010
9) Ashrafian H, et al : The evolution of robotic surgery : surgical and anaesthetic aspects. Br J Anaesth 119 : i72-i84, 2017
10) Maerz DA, et al : Complications of robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery distant from the surgical site. Br J Anaesth 118 : 492-503, 2017
11) Francois B, et al : 12-h pretreatment with methylprednisolone versus placebo for prevention of postextubation laryngeal oedema : a randomized double-blind trial. Lancet 369 : 1083-1089, 2007
P.229 掲載の参考文献
1) 石川晴士 : 麻酔科医として必ず知っておきたい周術期の呼吸管理, 羊土社, 東京, 173-181, 2017
2) Benumof JL (ed) : Conventional and differential lung management of one-lung ventilation. Anesthesia for Thoracic Surgery, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 406-431, 1995
3) Lohser J, et al : Clinical management of one-lung ventilation. Principles and Practice of Anesthesia for Thoracic Surgery, Slinger P ed, Springer, 2011
4) Licker M, et al : Risk factors for acute lung injury after thoracic surgery for lung cancer. Anesth Alnalg 97 : 1558-1565, 2003
6) Eichacker PQ, et al : Meta-analysis of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome trials testing low tidal volumes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166 : 1510-1514, 2002
7) Licker M, et al : Impact of intraoperative lung-protective interventions in patients undergoing lung cancer surgery. Crit Care 13 : R41, 2009
8) Yang M, et al : Does a protective ventilation strategy reduce the risk of pulmonary complications after lung cancer surgery? A randomized controlled trial. Chest 139 : 530-537, 2011
9) Leong LM, et al : The effect of positive end expiratory pressure on the respiratory profile during one-lung ventilation for thoracotomy. Anaesthesia 62 : 23-26, 2007
10) Hogue CW Jr : Effectiveness of low levels of nonventilated lung continuous positive airway pressure in improving arterial oxygenation during one-lung ventilation. Anesth Analg 79 : 364-367, 1994
11) Tusman G, et al : Lung recruitment improves the efficiency of ventilation and gas exchange during one-lung ventilation anesthesia. Anesth Analg 98 : 1064-1069, 2004
12) Unzueta C, et al : Alveolar recruitment improves ventilation during thoracic surgery : a randomized controlled trial. Br J Anaesth 108 : 517-524, 2012
13) Kim SH, et al : Effects of tidal volume and PEEP on arterial blood gases and pulmonary mechanics during one-lung ventilation. J Anesth 26 : 568-573, 2012
14) Jung JD, et al : Effects of a preemptive alveolar recruitment strategy on ar terial oxygenation during one-lung ventilation with different tidal volumes in patients with normal pulmonary function test. Korean J Anesthesiol 67 : 96-102, 2014
15) Sticher J, et al : Controlled hypercapnia during one-lung ventilation in patients undergoing pulmonary resection. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 45 : 842-847, 2001
16) Unzueta MC, et al : Pressure-controlled versus volume-controlled ventilation during one-lung ventilation for thoracic surgery. Anesth Analg 104 : 1029-1033, 2007
17) Roze H, et al : Pressure-controlled ventilation and intrabronchial pressure during one-lung ventilation. Br J Anaesth 105 : 377-381, 2010
18) Amato MB, et al : Driving pressure and survival in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 19 ; 372 : 747-755, 2015
19) Park M, et al : Driving pressure during thoracic surgery : A randomized clinical trial. Anesthesiology 130 : 385-393, 2019
P.236 掲載の参考文献
1) Mushambi MC, et al : Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association/Difficult Airway Society difficult and failed tracheal intubation guidelines-the way forward for the obstetric airway. Br J Anaesth 115 : 815-818, 2015
2) Dominguez JE, et al : Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Pregnant Women : A Review of Pregnancy Outcomes and an Approach to Management. Anesth Analg 127 : 1167-1177, 2018
3) Leboulanger N, et al : Pregnancy is associated with a decrease in pharyngeal but not tracheal or laryngeal cross-sectional area : a pilot study using the acoustic reflection method. Int J Obstet Anesth 23 : 35-39, 2014
4) Ali Z, et al : Incidence and risk factors for exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy. J Asthma Allergy 6 : 53-60, 2013
5) Kacmar RM, et al : Physiologic changes of pregnancy. Chestnut's Obstetric Anesthesia, Chestnut DH, et al ed, Elsevier, Philadelphia, 13-37
6) Eliasson AH, et al : Oxygen consumption and ventilation during normal labor. Chest 102 : 467-471, 1992
8) 4th National Audit Project of The Royal College of Anaesthetists and The Difficult Airway Society. Major complications of airway management in the United Kingdom. https://www.nationalauditprojects.org.uk/NAP4-Report, 2011 (2020年7月閲覧)
9) Kinsella SM, et al : Failed tracheal intubation during obstetric general anaesthesia : a literature review. Int J Obstet Anesth 24 : 356-374, 2015
11) Paranjothy S, et al : Interventions at caesarean section for reducing the risk of aspiration pneumonitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2) : CD004943, 2014
12) Shippam W, et al : High-flow nasal oxygen vs. standard flow-rate facemask pre-oxygenation in pregnant patients : a randomised physiological study. Anaesthesia 74 : 450-456, 2019
13) Toker MK, et al : Comparison of the McGrath video laryngoscope and macintosh direct laryngoscope in obstetric patients : A randomized controlled trial. Pak J Med Sci 35 : 342-347, 2019
14) Yao WY, et al : Comparison of Supreme laryngeal mask airway versus endotracheal intubation for airway management during general anesthesia for cesarean section : a randomized controlled trial. BMC Anesthesiol 19 : 123, 2019
15) Fujita N, et al : Nocturnal desaturation early after delivery : impact of delivery type and the beneficial effects of Fowler's position. Br J Anaesth 122 : e64-e66, 2019

XI 合併症とその管理

P.243 掲載の参考文献
1) Duggan M, et al : Pulmonary atelectasis. Anesthesiology 102 : 838-854, 2005
3) Neto AS, et al : Association between driving pressure and development of postoperative complication in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for general anaesthesia : a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Lancet Respir Med 4 : 272-280, 2016
4) Tusman G, et al : Alveolar recruitment during mechanical ventilation-Where are we in 2013? Trends in Anesthesia and Critical Care 3 : 238-245, 2013
5) 小谷透 : 肺胞リクルートメント. 人工呼吸. Jpn Repir Care 36 : 144-150, 2019
6) Ding W, et al : Diagnosis of pneumothorax by radiography and ultrasonography. Chest 140 : 859-866, 2011
7) Zhou J, et al : External suction versus simple water-seal on chest drainage following pulmonary surgery : an updated meta-analysis. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 28 : 29-36, 2019
8) 日本呼吸器学会成人肺炎診療ガイドライン2017作成委員会編 : 成人肺炎診療ガイドライン 2017, 日本呼吸器学会 (代表) 橋本 修発行, 一般社団法人日本呼吸器学会, 日本メディカルレビュー社, 東京, 39, 2017
9) Mandell LA, et al : Aspiration pneumonia. N Engl J Med 380 : 651-663, 2019
10) 斎藤朋之 : 周術期誤嚥性肺炎の危険因子-麻酔因子, 手術因子-. 麻酔 65 : 29-36, 2016

XII 呼吸器関連リハビリテーション

P.251 掲載の参考文献
1) 日本集中治療医学会早期リハビリテーション検討委員会 : 集中治療における早期リハビリテーション~根拠に基づくエキスパートコンセンサス~. 日集中医誌 24 : 255-303, 2017

最近チェックした商品履歴

Loading...