手術後鎮痛のすべて

出版社: 文光堂
著者:
発行日: 2013-05-23
分野: 臨床医学:外科  >  麻酔科学/ペイン
ISBN: 9784830628337
電子書籍版: 2013-05-23 (第1版第2刷)
書籍・雑誌
≪全国送料無料でお届け≫
発送目安:8~14営業日

13,200 円(税込)

電子書籍
章別単位での購入はできません
ブラウザ、アプリ閲覧

13,200 円(税込)

商品紹介

手術後痛を防ぎ,手術侵襲からの回復を促すために必要となる基礎医学の知見からエビデンスを志向した鎮痛法・鎮痛薬の使い方など,科学的な立場を堅持しつつ実践的に解説.

目次

  • 表紙
  • 執筆者一覧
  • 痛みのScience & Practiceシリーズ 序文
  • 「手術後鎮痛のすべて」序文
  • 目次
  • 総説
  • 手術痛と手術後痛
  • 解説
  • I. 手術後痛の病態生理学
  • 1 ヒト研究からみた手術後痛のメカニズム
  • 2 動物モデルからみた手術後痛のメカニズム
  • 3 分子からみた手術後痛のメカニズム
  • 4 創治癒と手術後痛
  • [T] 手術後痛とTRPV1
  • [T] 急性痛から慢性痛への移行 : 帯状疱疹と手術後痛
  • II. 手術後痛による全身作用と手術後痛の評価
  • 1 手術後痛による循環・呼吸機能への影響
  • 2 手術後痛による分泌物・代謝機能への影響
  • 3 手術後痛による免疫能への影響
  • 4 手術後痛の身体的評価法
  • 5 手術後痛の心理的評価法
  • 6 手術後痛とQOL
  • [T] 先行鎮痛の現在
  • [T] 手術後の創部の痒み
  • [T] 遷延性術後痛は脳画像で診断できるか ?
  • III. エビデンスを意識した手術後鎮痛法
  • 1 オピオイド
  • 2 消炎鎮痛薬, COX - 2抑制薬
  • 3 その他の鎮痛薬
  • 4 硬膜外鎮痛法
  • 5 末梢神経ブロック
  • 6 PCAによる手術後鎮痛
  • 7 局所鎮痛法
  • 8 手術後痛・手術後鎮痛法と長期予後
  • [T] 術後回復能力強化プログラムにおける術後鎮痛
  • [T] 抗凝固療法と手術後鎮痛法の選択
  • [T] 手術後痛に対する局所麻酔薬の全身投与
  • IV. 手術・部位別による手術後鎮痛法
  • 1 開腹術後鎮痛法
  • 2 開胸術後鎮痛法
  • 3 内視鏡下手術後鎮痛法
  • 4 四肢手術後鎮痛法
  • 5 産科手術後 ( 帝王切開術 ) 鎮痛法
  • 6 心臓・血管手術後鎮痛法
  • 7 脊椎・脊髄手術後鎮痛法
  • 8 関節手術後鎮痛法
  • 9 脳神経外科, 耳鼻科, 口腔外科などの手術後鎮痛法
  • [T] 手術後痛に対するacute pain serviceの現状
  • [T] 周術期管理チームにとっての術後痛
  • [T] 手術後痛と分娩痛の違い
  • [T] day surgeryにおける手術後鎮痛法
  • V. 手術後鎮痛による副作用の対策
  • 1 悪心・嘔吐対策
  • 2 せん妄対策
  • 3 呼吸・循環抑制対策
  • 4 腸管運動抑制, 術後イレウスなど他の副作用対策
  • [T] 術後早期リハビリテーションを目指した術後鎮痛
  • [T] 手術後痛と摂食・睡眠障害
  • VI. 小児と高齢者の手術後鎮痛法
  • 1 小児の手術後痛の問題点
  • 2 小児の手術後鎮痛法
  • 3 高齢者の手術後痛の問題点
  • 4 高齢者の手術後鎮痛法
  • [T] 手術後痛と術後認知機能障害
  • [T] 手術後痛の性差, 個人差
  • [T] 手術後痛に対する看護の役割
  • VII. 遷延性術後痛
  • 1 遷延性術後痛の実態
  • 2 遷延性術後痛の病態と予防法
  • 3 遷延性術後痛に対する治療
  • 4 遷延性術後痛に対するこれからの治療戦略
  • [T] 遷延性術後痛に対するmulti disciplinary pain治療の有効性
  • [T] 心身医療からみた遷延性術後痛
  • [T] 術後痛と俳句・短歌
  • 索引
  • 奥付

おすすめ商品

この書籍の参考文献

参考文献のリンクは、リンク先の都合等により正しく表示されない場合がありますので、あらかじめご了承下さい。

本参考文献は電子書籍掲載内容を元にしております。

総説

P.9 掲載の参考文献
2) Kumazawa T : Primitivism and plasticity of pain?implication of polymodal receptors. Neuroscience Research 32 : 9-31, 1998
3) Weiset TG, et al : An estimate of the global of surgery : a modeling strategy based on available data. Lancet 372 : 139-144, 2008
4) NIHCM Foundation data brief July 2012. The concentration of health care spending (http://www.nihcm.org/pdf/DataBrief3%20Final.pdf)
5) Stadler M, et al : A cost-utility and cost-ef fectiveness analysis of an acute pain service. J Clin Anesth 16 : 159-167, 2004
9) Macrae WA, et al : Chronic postsurgical pain. Epidemiology of Pain, Crombie IK ed, IASP Press, Seattle, 125-142, 1999
10) 独立行政法人国立がん研究センターがん対策情報センターがん情報サービス (http://ganjoho.jp/professional/statistics/statistics.html)

解説

P.16 掲載の参考文献
1) Brennan TJ, et al : Characterization of a rat model of incisional pain. Pain 64 : 493-501, 1996
2) Kawamata M, et al : Different mechanisms of development and maintenance of experimental incision-induced hyperalgesia in human skin. Anesthesiology 97 : 550-559, 2002
3) Kawamata M, et al : Experimental incision-induced pain in human skin : effects of systemic lidocaine on flare formation and hyperalgesia. Pain 100 : 77-89, 2002
4) Pogatzki EM, et al : Characterization of Adelta-and C-fibers innervating the plantar rat hindpaw one day after an incision. J Neurophysiol 87 : 721-731, 2002
6) Michaelis M, et al : Axotomized and intact muscle afferents but no skin afferents develop ongoing discharges of dorsal root ganglion origin after peripheral nerve lesion. J Neurosci 20 : 2742-2748, 2000
8) FiBmer I, et al : Modality-specific somatosensory changes in a human sur rogate model of postoperative pain. Anesthesiology 115 : 387-397, 2011
12) Schmidt R, et al : Inner vation territories of mechanoinsensitive C nociceptors in human skin. J Neurophysiol 88 : 1859-1866, 2002
13) LaMotte RH, et al : Pain, hyperalgesia and activity in nociceptive C units in humans after intradermal injection of capsaicin. J Physiol 448 : 749-764, 1992
15) Brooks J, et al : From nociception to pain perception : imaging the spinal and supraspinal pathways. J Anat 207 : 19-33, 2005
16) Pogatzki-Zahn EM, et al : Coding of incisional pain in the brain : a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in human volunteers. Anesthesiology 112 : 406-417, 2010
18) Seifert F, et al : Representation of UV-B-induced thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in the human brain : a functional MRI study. Hum Brain Mapp 29 : 1327-1342, 2008
P.21 掲載の参考文献
1) Brennan TJ, et al : Characterization of a rat model of incisional pain. Pain 64 : 493-501, 1996
2) Zahn PK, et al : Primary and secondary hyperalgesia in a rat model for human postoperative pain. Anesthesiology 90 : 863-872, 1999
5) Stubhaug A, et al : Mapping of punctuate hyperalgesia around a surgical incision demonstrates that ketamine is a power ful suppressor of central sensitization to pain following surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 41 : 1124-1132, 1997
6) Omote K, et al : Activation of peripheral NMDA-nitric oxide cascade in formalin test. Anesthesiology 93 : 173-178, 2000
7) Toriyabe M, et al : Contribution of interaction between nitric oxide and cyclooxygenases to the production of prostaglandins in carrageenan-induced inflammation. Anesthesiology 101 : 983-990, 2004
13) Zahn PK, et al : Lack of effect of intrathecally administered N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists in a rat model for postoperative pain. Anesthesiology 88 : 143-156, 1998
14) Zahn PK, et al : Intrathecal metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists do not decrease mechanical hyperalgesia in a rat model of postoperative pain. Anesth Analg 87 : 1354-1359, 1998
15) Zahn PK, et al : Intrathecal non-NMDA excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists inhibit pain behaviors in a rat model of postoperative pain. Pain 74 : 213-223, 1998
17) 林田健一郎ほか : 神経障害性疼痛モデル. ペインクリニック 32 : 1625-1632, 2011
P.25 掲載の参考文献
2) Cook SP, et al : Cell damage excites nociceptors through release of cytosolic ATP. Pain 95 : 41-47, 2002
3) Burnstock G : P2X receptors in sensory neurones. Br J Anaesth 84 : 476-488, 2000
4) Sato K, et al : AMPA, KA and NMDA receptors are expressed in the rat DRG neurones. Neuroreport 4 : 1263-1265, 1993
5) Reeh PW, et al : Molecular physiology of proton transduction in nociceptors. Curr Opin Pharmacol 1 : 45-51, 2001
6) Hamilton SG, et al : ATP in human skin elicits a doserelated pain response which is potentiated under conditions of hyperalgesia. Brain 123 (Pt 6) : 1238-1246, 2000
7) Carlton SM, et al : Localization and activation of glutamate receptors in unmyelinated axons of rat glabrous skin. Neurosci Lett 197 : 25-28, 1995
8) Jackson DL, et al : Glutamate participates in the peripheral modulation of thermal hyperalgesia in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 284 : 321-325, 1995
9) Woo YC : Changes in tissue pH and temperature after incision indicate acidosis may contribute to postoperative pain. Anesthesiology 101 : 468-475, 2004
13) Mollnes TE, et al : The complement system in traumarelated and ischemic tissue damage : a brief review. Shock 2 : 301-310, 1994
17) Ji RR, et al : p38 MAPK activation by NGF in primary sensory neurons after inflammation increases TRPV1 levels and maintains heat hyperalgesia. Neuron 36 : 57-68, 2002
24) Kassuya CA, et al : Intraplantar PGE2 causes nociceptive behaviour and mechanical allodynia : the role of prostanoid E receptors and protein kinases. Br J Pharmacol 150 : 727-737, 2007
P.29 掲載の参考文献
1) Chr ist ian LM, et al : Stress and wound healing. Neuroimmunomodulation 13 : 337-346, 2006
2) Lemke KA : Understanding the pathophysiology of perioperative pain. Can Vet J 45 : 405-413, 2004
3) Dray A : Inflammatory mediators of pain. Br J Anaesth 75 : 125-131, 1995
7) Kidd R : Another source might explain the pain. Can Fam Physician 47 : 1174, 2001
9) Parkhouse N, et al : Painful hypertrophic scarring and neuropeptides. Lancet 340 : 1410, 1992
P.31 掲載の参考文献
3) Honore P, et al : A-425619 [1-Isoquinolin-5-yl-3- (4-trifluoromethyl-benzyl) -urea] , a novel transient receptor potential type V1 receptor antagonist, relieves pathophysiological pain associated with inflammation and tissue injury in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 314 : 410-421, 2005
4) Ina F, et al : Modality-specific somatosensory changes in a human surrogate model of postoperative pain. Anesthesiology 115 : 387-397, 2011
5) Aasvang EK, et al : The effect of wound instillation of a novel purified capsaicin formulation on postherniotomy pain : a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Anesth Analg 107 : 282-289, 2008
6) Watabiki T, et al : Intrathecal administraion of AS1928370, a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 antagonist, attrnuates mechanical allodynia in a mouse model of neruopathic pain. Biol Pharm Bull 34 ; 1105-1108, 2011
P.33 掲載の参考文献
1) Johnson RW, et al : Prevention of herpes zoster pain. Pain Manage 2 : 63-69, 2012
2) Higa K, et al : Severity of skin lesions of herpes zoster at the worst phase rather than age and involved region most influences the duration of acute herpetic pain. Pain 69 : 245-253, 1997
3) Brandsborg B : Pain following hysterectomy : epidemiological and clinical aspects. Dan Med J 59 : 1003-1012, 2012
P.40 掲載の参考文献
2) Keith RD, et al : Cardiovascular events in the postanesthesia care unit. Anesthesiology 84 : 772-781, 1996
4) Wijeysundera DN, et al : Epidural anaesthesia and survival after intermediate-to-highrisk non-cardiac surgery : a population-based cohort study. Lancet 372 : 562-569, 2008
6) Poldermans D, et al : Guidelines for pre-operative cardiac riskassessment and perioperative cardiacmanagement in non-cardiac surgery, Eur Heart J 30 : 2769-2812, 2009
7) Liu S, et al : Epidural anesthesia and analgesia : their role in postoperative outcome. Anesthesiology 82 ; 1474-1506, 1995
8) Craig DB : Postoperative recovery of pulmonary function. Anesth Analg 60 ; 46-52, 1981
9) Ballantyne JC, et al : The comparative effect of postoperative analgesic therapies on pulmonary outcome : comulative meta-analyses of randomized, controlled trials. Anesth Analg 86 ; 598-612, 1998
P.44 掲載の参考文献
1) Woolf CJ, et al : Neuronal plasticity : increasing the gain in pain. Science 288 : 1765-1769, 2000
4) Shipton EA : The transition from acute to chronic post surgical pain. Anaesth Intensive Care 39 : 824-836, 2011
5) Matejec R, et al : Plasma levels of corticotroph-type proopiomelanocortin derivatives such as beta-lipotropin, betaendorphin (1-31), or adrenocorticotropic hormone are correlated with severity of postoperative pain. Clin J Pain 22 : 113-121, 2006
6) Chapman CR, et al : Pain and stress in a systems perspective : reciprocal neural, endocrine, and immune interactions. J Pain 9 : 122-145, 2008
7) Carli F : Postoperative metabolic stress : interventional strategies. Minerva Anestesiol 72 : 413-418, 2006
8) Greisen J, et al : Acute pain induces insulin resistance in humans. Anesthesiology 95 : 578-584, 2001
9) Ljungqvist O, et al : Metabolic perioperative management : novel concepts. Curr Opin Crit Care 11 : 295-299, 2005
P.49 掲載の参考文献
P.51 掲載の参考文献
1) Colins SL, et al : The visual analogue pain intensity scale : What is moderate pain in millimeters? Pain 72 : 95-97, 1997
2) Bijur PE, et al : Reliability of the visual analogue scale for measurement of acute pain. Acad Emerg Med 8 : 1153-1157, 2001
3) 佐藤哲文 : これからの術後疼痛管理チーム. 日臨麻会誌 32 : 344-349, 2012
4) Moinche S, et al : Time course of subjective pain ratings, and wound and leg tenderness after hysterectomy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 41 : 785-789, 1997
5) Tracey I, et al : Pain 2012 Refresher Courses 14th World Congress on Pain. 2012
P.58 掲載の参考文献
2) Henrichs-Rocker A, et al : Psychosocial predictors and correlates for chronic post-surgical painCPSP) -a systematic review. Eur J Pain 13 : 719-730, 2009
3) Wright CE, et al : Distrupted sleep the night before breast surgery is associated with increased postoperative pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 37 : 352-362, 2009
4) Sullivan M, et al : The pain catastrophizing scale : development and validation. Psychol Assess 7 : 524-532, 1995
5) Pavlin DJ, et al : Catastrophizing : a risk factor for postsurgical pain. Clin J Pain 21 : 83-90, 2005
8) Melzack R : The McGill Pain Questionnaire : major properties and scoring methods. Pain 1 : 277-299, 1975
9) Melzack R : The short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Pain 30 : 191-197, 1987
11) Spielberger, CD : Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Consulting Psychologist Press Inc, California, 1-24, 1970
12) Zung WW : A self-rating depression scale. Arch Gen Psychiatry 12 : 63-70, 1965
P.63 掲載の参考文献
1) World Health Organization : Division of mental health and prevention of substance abuse : Program on mental health, WHOQOL, Measuring quality of life (1997). http://www.who.int/mental_health/media/68.pdf.
2) 土井由利子 : 総論-QOLの概念とQOL研究の重要性. 保健医療科学 53 : 176-180, 2004
3) Bonica JJ : Postoperative pain. The management of Pain, Bonica JJ ed, 2nd ed, Lea & Fibiger, Philadelphia, pp461-480, 1990
4) 恒藤暁 : 最新緩和医療学, 最新医学社, 大阪, 1999
5) 田崎美弥子ほか : WHO QOL手引, 改訂版. 金子書房, 東京, 2007
6) 福原俊一ほか : 健康プロファイル型尺度 (SE-36を中心に). 臨床のためのQOL評価ハンドブック, 池上直己ほか編, 医学書院, 東京, 34-44, 2001
7) Bergne M, et al : The sickness impact prof i le : development and final revision of a health status measure. Med Care 19 : 787-805, 1981
8) 後藤葉子ほか : Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) 日本語版の作成と慢性呼吸器疾患患者における信頼性および妥当性の検討. 東北医誌 118 : 1-8, 2006
9) 池田俊也ほか : 選好に基づく尺度 (EQ-5Dを中心に). 臨床のためのQOL評価ハンドブック, 池上直己ほか編, 医学書院, 東京, 45-49, 2001
P.65 掲載の参考文献
1) Crile GW : The kinetic theory of shock and its prevention through anoci-association (shockless operation). Lancet 185 : 7-16, 1913
2) Woolf CJ : Evidence for a central component of post-injury pain hypersensitivity. Nature 306 : 686-688, 1983
3) Wall PD : The prevention of post-operative pain. Pain 33 : 289-290, 1988
4) Kissin I : Preemptive analgesia. Why its effect is not always obvious. Anesthesiology 84 : 1015-1019, 1996
5) Moiniche S, et al : A qualitative and quantitative systematic review of preemptive analgesia for postoperative pain relief : the role of timing of analgesia. Anesthesiology 96 : 725-741, 2002
6) Kissin I : Preemptive analgesia. Anesthesiology 93 : 1138-1143, 2000
P.67 掲載の参考文献
P.69 掲載の参考文献
1) Merskey H, et al eds : Classification of Chronic Pain, 2nd ed, IASP Task Force on Taxonomy, IASP Press, Seattle, 1994
2) 倉田二郎 : 痛み研究におけるfMRIの現状と新展開. ペインクリニック 33 : 1131-1139, 2012
3) Kupers R, et al : No evidence for generalized increased postoperative responsiveness to pain : a combined behavioral and serial functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Anesth Analg 109 : 600-606, 2009
4) Pogatzki-Zahn EM, et al : Coding of incisional pain in the brain. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study in human volunteers. Anesthesiology 112 : 406-417, 2010
5) Iadarola MJ, et al : Unilateral decrease in thalamic activity observed with positron emission tomography in patients with chronic neuropathic pain. Pain 63 : 55-64, 1995
P.76 掲載の参考文献
1) Walder B, et al : Efficacy and safety of patient-controlled opioid analgesia for acute postoperative pain. A quantitative systematic review. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 45 : 795-804, 2001
3) Marret E, et al : Effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on patient-controlled analgesia morphine side effects : meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Anesthesiology 102 : 1249-1260, 2005
5) Mathews TJ, et al : Does adding ketamine to morphine patient-controlled analgesia safely improve postthoracotomy pain? Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 14 : 194-199, 2012
6) Wu CL, et al : Efficacy of postoperative patient-controlled and continuous infusion epidural analgesia versus intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with opioids. A meta-analysis. Anesthesiology 103 : 1079-1088, 2005
8) Stafford-Smith M : Impaired haemostasis and regional anaesthesia. Can J Anaesth 43 : R129-R141, 1996
9) Murphy JD, et al : Comparison of the postoperative analgesic ef ficacy of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with tramadol to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with opioid. J Opioid Manag 6 : 141-147, 2010
P.80 掲載の参考文献
1) Vane JR : Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis as a mechanism of action for aspirin-like drugs. Nature New Biol 231 : 232-235, 1971
2) Takahiro S : Mechanisms and clinical effects in acetaminophen-induced analgesia. Pain Clinic 33 : 218-226, 2012
3) Sinatra R : Role of COX-2 inhibitors in the evolution of acute pain management. J Pain Symptom Manage 24 (1 suppl) : S18-S27, 2002
4) Golan DE, et al eds : Principles of Pharmacology : The Pathophysiologic Basis of Dr ug Therapy, 2nd ed, Lippincott Williams &Wilkins, Baltimore, 2008
5) 重篤副作用疾患別対応マニュアル 薬物性肝障害. 厚生労働省, 2008 (平成20年)
7) Elia N, et al : Does multimodal analgesia with acetaminophen, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, or selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and patient-controlles analgesia morphine offer advantages over morphine alone? Meta-analyses of randomized trials. Anesthesiology 103 : 1296-1304, 2005
8) Morimoto M : Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in pain clinic. Pain Clinic 33 : 187-198, 2012
P.85 掲載の参考文献
1) Oye I, et al : Effects of ketamine on sensory perception : evidence for a role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 260 : 1209-1213, 1992
2) Himmelseher S, et al : Ketamine for perioperative pain management. Anesthesiology 102 : 211-220, 2005
3) de Kock M, et al : Balanced analgesia in the perioperative period : Is there a place for ketamie? Pain 92 : 373-380, 2001
5) Rosseland LA, et al : Intra-articular (IA) catheter administration allows evaluaton of baseline pain, demonstrates large variation in need of analgesics, and finds no analgesic effect of IA ketamine compared with IA saline. Pain 104 : 25-34, 2003
6) Lee IO, et al : No enhancement of sensory and motor blockade by ketamine added to ropivacaine interscalene brachial plexus blockade. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scand 46 : 821-826, 2002
8) Lauretti GR : Mechanisms of analgesia of intravenous lidocaine. Rev Bras Anestesiol 58 : 280-286, 2008
9) Ness TJ : Intravenous lidocaine inhibits visceral nociceptic reflexes and spinal neurons in the rat. Anesthesiology 92 : 1685-1691, 2000
10) Kawamata M, et al : Experimental incision-induced pain in human skin : effects of systemic lidocaine on flare formation and hyperalgesia. Pain 100 : 77-89, 2002
12) Koppert W, et al : Perioperative intravenous lidocaine has preventive effects on postoperative pain and morphine consumption after major abdominal surgery. Anesth Analg 98 : 1050-1055, 2004
15) Omote K : Intravenous lidocaine to treat postoperative pain management : novel strategy with a long-established drug. Anesthesiology 106 : 5-6, 2007
16) Fehrenbacher JC, et al : Pregabalin and gabapentin reduce releasse of substance P and CGRP from rat spinal tissues only after inflammation or activation of protein kinase C. Pain 105 : 133-141, 2003
17) Field MJ, et al : Evaluation of gabapentin and s- (+) -3-isobutylgaba in a rat model of postoperative pain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 282 : 1242-1246, 1997
25) Freedman BM, et al : Pregabalin has opioid-sparing effects following augmentation mammaplasty. Anesthetic Surg J 28 : 421-424, 2008
27) Gallen C, et al : Affinity, potency and efficacy of tramadol and its metabolites at the cloned human mu-opioid receptor. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 362 : 116-121, 2000
28) Reimann W, et al : Inhibition of spinal noradrenalin uptake in rats by the centrally acting analgesic tramadol. Biochem Pharmcol 47 : 2289-2293, 1994
29) Murphy JD, et al : Comparison of the postoperative analgesic efficacy of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with tramadol to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with opioid. J Opioid Manag 6 : 141-147, 2010
30) Stubhaug A, et al : Lack of analgesic effect of 50 and 100 mg oral tramadol after orthopedic surgery : a randomized, double-blind, placebo and standard active drug comparison. Pain 62 : 111-118, 1995
31) Aribogan A, et al : Patient controlled epidural analgesia after major urologic surgery : a comparison of tramadol with morphine. The Pain Clinic 16 : 441-450, 2004
32) Malik P, et al : Comparative evaluation of epidural tramadol and morphine for postoperative analgesia. Eg J Anaesth 21 : 135-140, 2005
33) Grace D, et al : Ineffective analgesia after extradural tramadol hydrochloride in patients undergoing total knee replacement. Anaesthesia 50 : 555-558, 1995
34) Edwards JE, et al : Combination nalgesic ef ficacy : Individual patient data meta-analysis of single-dose oral tramadol plus acetaminophen in acute postoperative pain. J Pain Symptm Manage 23 : 121-130, 2002
35) Bourne MH, et al : Tramadol/acetaminophen tablets in the treatment of postsurgical orthopedic pain. Am J Orthop 34 : 592-597, 2005
P.91 掲載の参考文献
1) Yeager MP, et al : Epidural anesthesia and analgesia in high-risk surgical patients. Anesthesiology 66 : 729-736, 1987
2) Liu S, et al : Epidural anesthesia and analgesia. Their role in postoperative outcome. Anesthesiology 82 : 1474-1506, 1995
3) Kehlet H, et al : Effect of postoperative analgesia on surgical outcome. Br J Anaesth 87 : 62-72, 2001
4) Wu CL, et al : Efficacy of postoperative patient-controlled and continuous infusion epidural analgesia versus intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with opiods. A metaanalysis. Anesthesiology 103 : 1079-1088, 2005
8) Bignami E, et al : Epidural analgesia improves outcome in cardiac surgery : A meta-analysis of ramdomized controlled trials. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 24 : 586-597, 2010
10) Luger TJ, et al : Neuroaxial versus general anaesthesia in geriatric patients for hip fracture surgery : does it matter? Osteoporos Int 21 (suppl 4) : S555-S572, 2010
11) 土井克史 : 整形外科手術におけるロピバカインの臨床使用の実際-硬膜外麻酔-. 日臨麻会誌 29 : 690-696, 2009
13) Ueda K, et al : A comparative study of sequential epidural bolus technique and continuous epidural infusion. Anesthesiology 103 : 126-129, 2005
14) Fowler S, et al : Epidural analgesia compared with peripheral nerve blockade after major knee surgery : a systemic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Br J Anaesth 100 : 154-164 , 2008
15) Moen V, et al : Severe neurological complications after central neuraxial blockades in Sweden 1990-1999. Anesthesiology 101 : 950-959, 2004
18) Meikle J, et al : Detection and management of epidural haematomas related to anaesthesia in the UK : a national survey of current practice. Br J Anaesth 101 : 400-404, 2008
P.98 掲載の参考文献
2) Riazi S, et al : Effect of local anaesthetic volume (20 vs 5ml) on the efficacy and respiratory consequences of ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block. Br J Anaesth 101 : 549-556, 2008
6) Lee TH, et al : Comparison of extent of sensory block following posterior and subcostal approaches to ultrasoundguided transverses abdominis plane block. Anaesth Intensive Care 38 : 452-460, 2010
7) Richardson J, et al : Bilateral thoracic paraver tebral block : potential and practice. Br J Anaesth 106 : 164-171, 2011
8) Melnikov AL, et al : Thoracic paravertebral block versus transversus abdominis plane block in major gynecological surgery : a prospective, randomized, controlled, observerblinded study. Local Reg Anesth 5 : 55-61, 2012
11) Bendtsen TF, et al : Ultrasound guidance improves a continuous popliteal sciatic nerve block when compared with nerve stimulation. Reg Anesth Pain Med 36 : 181-184, 2011
14) Bingham AE, et al : Continuous peripheral nerve block compared with single-injection peripheral nerve block : a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Reg Anesth Pain Med 37 : 583-594, 2012
15) Wang AZ, et al : Ultrasound guided continuous femoral nerve block for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty : catheter perpendicular to the nerve versus catheter parallel to the nerve. Reg Anesth Pain Med 35 : 127-131, 2010
16) Fredrickson MJ, et al : Posterior versus anterolateral approach interscalene catheter placement : a prospective randomized trial. Reg Anesth Pain Med 36 : 125-133, 2011
19) Horlocker TT, et al : Regional anesthesia in the patient receiving antithrombotic or thrombolytic therapy : American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Evidence-Based Guidelines (Third Edition). Reg Anesth Pain Med 35 : 64-101, 2010
20) Higa K, et al : Retropharyngeal hematoma after stellate ganglion block : Analysis of 27 patients reported in the literature. Anesthesiology 105 : 1238-1245, 2006
21) Eledjam JJ, et al : Postoperative analgesia by femoral nerve block with ropivacaine 0.2 % after major knee surgery : Continuous versus patient-controlled techniques. Reg Anesth Pain Med 27 : 604-611, 2002
22) Taboada M, et al : A "new" automated bolus technique for continuous popliteal block : a prospective, randomized comparison with a continuous infusion technique. Anesth Analg 107 : 1433-1437, 2008
23) Singelyn FJ, et al : Interscalene brachial plexus analgesia after open shoulder surgery : continuous versus patientcontrolled infusion. Anesth Analg 89 : 1216-1220, 1999
24) Ilfeld BM, et al : Popliteal sciatic perineural local anesthetic infusion : a comparison of three dosing regimens for postoperative analgesia. Anesthesiology 101 : 970-977, 2004
26) Taboada MM, et al : Low volume and high concentration of local anesthetic is more efficacious than high volume and low concentration in Labat's sciatic nerve block : a prospective, randomized comparison. Anesth Analg 107 : 2085-2088, 2008
27) Ilfeld BM, et al : Continuous peripheral nerve blocks : is local anesthetic dose the only factor, or do concentration and volume influence infusion effects as well? Anesthesiology 112 : 347-354, 2010
P.104 掲載の参考文献
1) Grass JA : Patient-controlled analgesia. Anesth Analg 101 : S44-S61, 2005
2) Roe BB : Are postoperative narcotics necessary? Arch Surg 87 : 912-915, 1963
3) Sechzer PH : Studies in pain with the analgesic demand system. Anesth Analg 50 : 1-10, 1971
4) Evans JM, et al : Apparatus for patient-controlled administration of intravenous narcotics during labor. Lancet 1 : 17-18, 1976
5) Ballantayne JB, et al : Postoperative patient-controlled analgesia : meta-analysiss of initial randomized control trials. J Clin Anesth 5 : 182-193, 1993
6) Walder B, et al : Efficacy and safety of patient-controlled opioid analgesia for acute postoperative pain. A quantitative systemic review. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 45 : 795-784, 2001
7) Hudcoca J, et al : Patient controlled opioid analgesia versus conventional opioid analgesia for postoperative pain. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev 4 : CD003348, 2006
8) Block BM, et al : Ef ficacy of postoperative epidural analgesia : a meta-analysis. JAMA 290 : 2455-2463, 2003
9) Wu CL, et al : Efficacy of postoperative patient-controlled and continuous infusion epidural analgesia versus intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with opioids : a meta-analysis. Anesthesiology 103 : 1079-1088, 2005
14) Chelly JE, et al : The safety and ef ficacy of a fentanyl patient-controlled transdermal system for acute postoperative analgesia : a multicenter, placebo-controlled trial. Anesth Analg 98 : 427-433, 2004
P.109 掲載の参考文献
2) Beaussier M, et al : Continuous preperitoneal infusion of ropivacaine provides effective analgesia and accelerates recovery after colorectal surgery : a randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled study. Anesthesiology 107 : 461-468, 2007
3) O'Neill P, et al : Ropivacaine continuous wound infusion versus epidural morphine for postoperative analgesia after cesarean delivery : a randomized controlled trial. Anesth Analg 114 : 179-185, 2012
11) Liguori GA, et al : Possible bupivacaine toxicity after intraarticular injection for postarthroscopic analgesia of the knee : implications of the surgical procedure. Anesth Analg 94 : 1010-1013, 2002
P.113 掲載の参考文献
2) Rodgers A, et al : Reduction of postoperative mortality and morbidity with epidural or spinal anaesthesia : results from overview of randomised trials. BMJ 321 : 1493, 2000
3) Beattie WS, et al : Epidural analgesia reduces postoperative myocardial infarction : a meta-analysis. Anesth Analg 93 : 853-858, 2001
4) Nishimori M, et al : Epidural pain relief versus systemic opioid-based pain relief for abdominal aor tic surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 7 : CD005059, 2012
9) Park WY, et al : Effect of epidural anesthesia and analgesia on perioperative outcome : a randomized, controlled Veterans Affairs cooperative study. Ann Surg 234 : 560-569, 2001
12) Wu CL, et al : Effect of postoperative epidural analgesia on morbidity and mortality following surgery in medicare patients. Reg Anesth Pain Med 29 : 525-533, 2004
14) Taniguchi M, et al : Epidural anesthesia enhances sympathetic nerve activity in the unanesthetized segments in cats. Anesth Analg 84 : 391-397, 1997
15) Meissner A, et al : Thoracic epidural anesthesia and the patient with heart disease : benefits, risks, and controversies. Anesth Analg 85 : 517-528, 1997
16) Liu SS, et al : Effects of perioperative central neuraxial analgesia on outcome after coronary artery bypass surgery : a meta-analysis. Anesthesiology 101 : 153-161, 2004
18) Popping DM, et al : Protective effects of epidural analgesia on pulmonary complications after abdominal and thoracic surgery : a meta-analysis. Arch Surg 143 : 990-999 ; discussion 1000, 2008
19) Qaseem A, et al : Risk assessment for and strategies to reduce perioperative pulmonary complications for patients undergoing noncardiothoracic surgery : a guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 144 : 575-580, 2006
20) Warner DO : Preventing postoperative pulmonary complications : the role of the anesthesiologist. Anesthesiology 92 : 1467-1472, 2000
21) Wu CL, et al : Efficacy of postoperative patient-controlled and continuous infusion epidural analgesia versus intravenous patient controlled analgesia with opioids : a metaanalysis. Anesthesiology 103 : 1079-1088, quiz 1109-1110, 2005
22) Bauer AJ, et al : Mechanisms of postoperative ileus. Neurogastroenterol Motil 16 (suppl 2) : 54-60, 2004
P.116 掲載の参考文献
3) Oliveira KG,et al : Does abbreviation of preoperative fasting to two hours with carbohydrates increase the anesthetic risk? Rev Bras Anestesiol 59 : 577-584, 2009
4) Gustafsson UO, et al : Guidelines for Perioperative Care in Elective Colonic Surgery : Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERASR) Society Recommendations. World J Surg 37 : 259-284, 2013
5) 谷口英喜 : 術後回復能力強化プログラムenhanced recovery after surgery : ERAS). ペインクリニック 31 : 755-768, 2010
P.118 掲載の参考文献
1) Horlocker TT, et al : Regional anesthesia in the patient receiving antithrombotic or thrombolytic therapy : American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Evidece-Based Guidelines (Third Edition). Reg Anesth Pain Med 35 : 64-101, 2010
2) Enneking FK, et al : Oral anticoagulants and regional anesthesia : a perspective. Reg Anesth Pain Med 23 : 140-145, 1998
3) 佐倉伸一ほか編 : 周術期超音波ガイド下神経ブロック. 真興交易医書出版部, 東京, 165-173, 419-430, 1994
4) 井上莊一郎 : 静脈内鎮痛法. 術後痛サービス (POPS) マニュアル, POPS研究会編, 真興交易医書出版部, 東京, 59-65, 2011
5) 濱田宏ほか : 静脈内投与. PCA患者自己調節鎮痛法, 山蔭道明監修, 克誠堂出版, 東京, 53-60, 2011
P.120 掲載の参考文献
1) Louise V, et al : Perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion for postoperative pain control : a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Can J Anesth 58 : 22-37, 2011
3) 西川俊昭 : 心室性期外収縮に対する薬物の選択. 麻酔科診療プラクティス 9. 周術期治療薬ガイド, 高崎眞弓編, 文光堂, 東京, 64-65, 2003
4) Fearon KCH, et al : Enhanced recovery after surgery : A consensus review of clinical care for patients undergoing colonic resection. Clin Nutr 24 : 466-477, 2005
5) 小田裕ほか : 局所麻酔時のショック, 局所麻酔薬中毒, 局所麻酔薬アレルギー. 局所麻酔薬中毒・アレルギー, 浅田章ほか編, 克誠堂出版, 東京, 163-188, 2008
P.126 掲載の参考文献
1) 高崎眞弓ほか : 研修医のための術後鎮痛ガイドブック, 真興交易医書出版部, 東京, 2001
3) 高崎眞弓ほか : 術後痛の発生機構. 研修医のための術後鎮痛ガイドブック, 真興交易医書出版部, 東京, 24-29, 2001
5) 小坂義弘 : 手術部位別にみる硬膜外麻酔と穿刺部位と初回投与量. 新版 硬膜外麻酔の臨床, 真興交易医書出版部, 東京, 56-57, 1997
6) Berti M, et al : 0.2% ropivacaine with or without fentanyl for patient-controlled epidural analgesia after major abdominal surgery : a double blind study. J Clin Anesth 12 : 292-297, 2000
7) 新井丈郎ほか : アセトアミノフェンの周術期鎮痛の使用法について (Q&A). 臨床麻酔 36 : 1065-1067, 2012
8) 橋口さおり : 術後IV-PCAの実際. 日臨麻会誌 30 : 860-867, 2010
10) 佐伯茂 : 術後痛とオピオイド鎮痛薬 ペンタゾシン. ペインクリニック (別冊春号) 25 : S178-186, 2005
11) 松元茂ほか : PCAシステムを用いた持続皮下注入法による術後疼痛管理. 麻酔 43 : 1709-1713, 1994
12) 東島由一郎 : Patient controlled analgesia. 日臨外医会誌 57 : 2668-2672, 1996
13) 赤塚正文ほか : ブプレノルフィン坐剤とNSAIDsインドメタシン, ジクロフェナク) 坐剤併用の術後鎮痛効果の検討. 麻酔 45 : 298-303, 1996
16) Scott NB : Wound infiltration for surgery. Anaesthesia 1 : 65-75, 2010
P.136 掲載の参考文献
1) Wildgaard K, et al : Post-thoracotomy pain : a critical review of pathogenic mechanisms and strategies for prevention. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 36 : 170-180, 2009
2) Jensen TS : Pathophysiology of pain : from theory to clinical evidence. Eur J Pain 2 : s13-17, 2008
3) Devor M : Response of nerves to injury in relation to neuropathic pain. Textbook of Pain, McMahon S, et al eds, E-ed, Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, 905-924, 2005
4) Treede RD, et al : Neuropathic pain : re-definition and a grading system for clinical and research purposes. Neurology 70 : 1630-1635, 2009
6) Steegers MAH, et al : Only half of the chronic pain after thoracic surgery shows a neuropathic component. J Pain 9 : 955-961, 2008
7) Scarsi M, et al : In patients undergoing thoracic surgery, is paravertebral block as effective as epidural analgesia for pain management? Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 10 : 92-96, 2010
8) 日本ペインクリニック学会神経障害性疼痛薬物療法ガイドライン作成ワーキンググループ編 : 神経障害性疼痛薬物療法ガイドライン, 真興交易医書出版部, 東京, 1-102, 2011
11) O'Connor AB : Neuropathic pain : quality-of-life impact, costs and cost effectiveness of therapy. Pharmacoeconomics 27 : 95-112, 2009
P.142 掲載の参考文献
1) Bisgaard T, et al : Characteristics and prediction of early pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Pain 90 : 261-269, 2001
2) Abbott J, et al : Intraperitoneal gas drain to reduce pain after laparoscopy : randomized masked trial. Obstet Gynecol 98 : 97-100, 2001
4) Nguyen NT, et al : Comparison of pulmonary function and postoperative pain after laparoscopic versus open gastric bypass : a randomized trial. J Am Coll Surg 192 : 469-477, 2001
5) Ekstein P, et al : Laparoscopic surgery may be associated with severe pain and high analgesia requirements in the immediate postoperative period. Ann Surg 243 : 41-46, 2006
6) Costello MF, et al : A prospective, randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial of multimodal intraoperative analgesia for laparoscopic excision of endometriosis. Fertil Steril 94 : 436-443, 2010
7) Liu YY, et al : Local anesthesia with ropivacaine for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. World J Gastroenterol 15 : 2376-2380, 2009
8) Narchi P, et al ; Intraperitoneal local anaesthetic for shoulder pain after day-case laparoscopy. Lancet 338 : 1569-1570, 1991
10) Gupta A : Local anaesthesia for pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy-a systematic review. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 19 : 275-292, 2005
16) Scuderi PE, et al : Multimodal antiemetic management prevents early postoperative vomiting after outpatient laparoscopy. Anesth Analg 91 : 1408-1414, 2000
P.149 掲載の参考文献
3) 川真田樹人 : 術後痛の発生メカニズム. 麻酔 59 : S166-172, 2010
5) Nikolajsen L, et al : Chronic pain following total hip arthroplasty : a nationwide quest ionnaire study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 50 : 495-500, 2006
8) Hebl JR, et al : A pre-emptive multimodal pathway featuring peripheral nerve block improves perioperative outcomes after major orthopedic surgery. Reg Anesth Pain Med 33 : 510-517, 2008
9) 小松徹ほか編 : 新・超音波ガイド下区域麻酔法, 克誠堂出版, 東京, 2012
10) 白石美治 : 第4章 さまざまなPCAの実際 5. 四肢手術後のPCA. PCA (Patient-Controlled Analgesia) 患者自己調節鎮痛法, 山蔭道明監修, 山内正憲編, 克誠堂出版, 東京, 169-174, 2011
11) Liguori GA : Complications of regional anesthesia : nerve injury and peripheral neural blockade. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 16 : 84-86, 2004
12) Auroy Y, et al : Major complications of regional anesthesia in France : the SOS regional anesthesia hotline service. Anesthesiology 97 : 1274-1280, 2002
13) 佐倉伸一 : 第8章 神経ブロックと神経障害 3. 神経障害の発生要因. 図説 超音波ガイド下神経ブロック, 佐倉伸一ほか編, 真興交易医書出版部, 東京, 89-91, 2007
15) Neal JM, et al : ARSA practice advisory on local anesthetic systemic toxicity. Reg Anesth Pain Med 35 : 152-161, 2010
P.154 掲載の参考文献
2) Nikolajsen L, et al : Chronic pain following Caesarean section. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 48 : 111-116, 2004
3) Kainu JP, et al : Persistent pain after caesarean section and vaginal birth : a cohort study. Int J Obstet Anesth 19 : 4-9, 2010
4) 小川節郎 : II. 神経障害性疼痛に関する基礎研究. 5) 慢性疼痛と交感神経活動. ペインクリニック 30 : S50-S56, 2009
8) Hepner DH, et al : Postoperative analgesia : Systemic and local techniques. In : Chestnust DH, et al. Chestnut's Obstetric Anesthesia, 4th ed. Mosby Elsevier, Philadelphia, 575-592, 2009
11) Onishi Y, et al : Transversus abdominis plane block provides postoperative analgesic effects after cesarean section-additional analgesia to epidural morphine alone-. J Obstet Gynaecol Res (in press)
12) Harrison DM, et al : Epidural narcotic and patient-controlled analgesia for post-cesarean section pain relief. Anesthesiology 68 : 454-457, 1988
13) Vercauteren M, et al : Cost-effectiveness of analgesia after Caesarean section. A comparison of intrathecal morphine and epidural PCA. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 46 : 85-89, 2002
15) Sarvela J, et al : A double-blinded, randomized comparison of intrathecal and epidural morphine for elective cesarean delivery. Anesth Analg 95 : 436-440, 2002
18) Baka NE, et al : Colostrum morphine concentrations during postcesarean intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. Anesth Analg 94 : 184-187, 2002
P.160 掲載の参考文献
1) Mueller XM, et al : Pain location, distribution, and intensity after cardiac surgery. Chest 118 : 391-396, 2000
2) Sharma AD, et al : Peripheral nerve injuries during cardiac surgery : risk factors, diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention. Anesth Analg 91 : 1358-1369, 2000
3) Saxena A, et al : Usefulness of postoperative atrial fibrillation as an independent predictor for worse early and late outcomes after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (multicenter Australian study of 19,497 patients). Am J Cardiol 109 : 219-225, 2012
4) Lowenstein E, et al : Cardiovascular response to large doses of intravenous morphine in man. N Engl J Med 281 : 1389-1393, 1969
6) Hemmerling TM, et al : Immediate extubation after aortic valve surgery using high thoracic epidural analgesia or opioid-based analgesia. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 19 : 176-181, 2005
9) Lihtinen P, et al : Propacetamol as adjunctive treatment for postoperative pain after cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 95 : 813-819, 2002
11) Liu SS, et al : Effects of perioperative central neuraxial analgesia on outcome after coronary artery bypass surgery : a meta-analysis. Anesthesiology 101 : 153-161, 2004
12) Horlocker TT, et al : Regional anesthesia in the patient receiving antithrombotic or thrombolytic therapy : American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Evidence-Based Guidelines (Third Edition). Reg Anesth Pain Med 35 : 64-101, 2010
13) Liu SS, et al : Ef ficacy of continuous wound catheters delivering local anesthetic for postoperative analgesia : a quantitative and qualitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Am Coll Surg 203 : 914-932, 2006
14) Baxter AD, et al : Continuous intercostal blockade after cardiac surgery. Br J Anaesth 59 : 162-166, 1987
15) Mehta Y, et al : A comparative evaluation of intrapleural and thoracic epidural analgesia for postoperative pain relief after minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 12 : 162-165, 1998
P.165 掲載の参考文献
1) Macrae WA : Chronic post-surgical pain : 10 years on. Br J Anaesth 101 : 77-86, 2008 (EBM Level 5)
2) Thorvaldsen P, et al : Short-term outcome in lumbar spine surgery. A prospective study (Part I). Acta Neurochir 101 : 121-125, 1989 (Level 1b)
3) Kim DH, et al : Prospective study of iliac crest bone graft harvest site pain and morbidity. Spine J 9 : 886-892, 2009 (Level 1b)
4) 大谷晃司 : 脊椎手術後疼痛症候群. 麻酔 59 : 1370-1377, 2010 (Level 5)
5) Sharma S, et al : Beyond opioid patient-controlled analgesia : a systematic review of analgesia after major spine surgery. Reg Anesth Pain Med 37 : 79-98, 2012 (Level 1a)
6) Riest G, et al : Preventive effects of perioperative parecoxib on post-discectomy pain. Br J Anaesth 100 : 256-262, 2008 (Level 1b)
7) Yamashita K, et al : Preoperative administration of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil reduces postoperative pain for spinal fusion surgery. J Anesth 20 : 92-95, 2006 (Level 1b)
8) Yukawa Y, et al : A prospective randomized study of preemptive analgesia for postoperative pain in the patients undergoing posterior lumbar interbody fusion : continuous subcutaneous morphine, continuous epidural morphine, and diclofenac sodium. Spine 30 : 2357-2361, 2005 (Level 1b)
9) Grass JA : Patient-controlled analgesia. Anesth Analg 101 : S44-61, 2005
10) Taenzer AH, et al : Efficacy of postoperative epidural analgesia in adolescent scoliosis surgery : a meta-analysis. Paediatr Anaesth 20 : 135-143, 2010 (Level 1a)
11) Borgeat A, et al : Postoperative pain management following scoliosis surgery. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 21 : 313-316, 2008 (Level 1a)
12) Gurbet A, et al : Pre-emptive infiltration of levobupivacaine is superior to at-closure administration in lumbar laminectomy patients. Eur Spine J 17 : 1237-1241, 2008 (Level 1b)
13) Viscusi ER, et al : The safety and efficacy of fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system compared with morphine intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative pain management : an analysis of pooled data from three randomized, active-controlled clinical studies. Anesth Analg 105 : 1428-1436, table of contents, 2007 (Level 1b)
14) Loftus RW, et al : Intraoperative ketamine reduces perioperative opiate consumption in opiate-dependent patients with chronic back pain undergoing back surgery. Anesthesiology 113 : 639-646, 2010 (Level 1b)
15) Kim JC, et al : Effective dose of peri-operative oral pregabalin as an adjunct to multimodal analgesic regimen in lumbar spinal fusion surgery. Spine 36 : 428-433, 2011 (Level 1b)
P.170 掲載の参考文献
1) Parker RK, et al : Patient-controlled analgesia. Does a concurrent opioid infusion improve pain management after surgery? JAMA 266 : 1947-1952, 1991
2) 新谷知久ほか : 肩関節術後痛に対する鎖骨上アプローチでの持続腕神経叢ブロックの効果. 麻酔 59 : 1385-1390, 2010
3) Ilfeld BM, et al : The sciatic nerve and knee arthroplasty : to block, or not to block-that is the question. Reg Anesth Pain Med 36 : 421-423, 2011
4) Carli F, et al : Analgesia and functional outcome after total knee arthroplasty : periarticular infiltration vs continuous femoral nerve block. Br J Anaesth 105 : 185-195, 2010
7) American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Acute Pain Management : Practice guidelines for acute pain management in the perioperative setting : an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Acute Pain Management. Anesthesiology 100 : 1573-1581, 2004
9) Bailie DS, et al : Severe chondrolysis after shoulder arthroscopy : a case series. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 18 : 742-747, 2009
14) Singelyn FJ, et al : Ef fects of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with morphine, continuous epidura analgesia, and continuous femoral ner ve sheath block on rehabilitation after unilateral total-hip arthroplasty. Reg Anesth Pain Med 30 : 452-457, 2005
P.174 掲載の参考文献
1) Alana M, et al : Acute and chronic pain following craniotomy. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 23 : 551-557, 2010
3) 森本康裕 : 脳外科手術におけるレミフェンタニルの使用法. 日臨麻会誌 27 : 395-401, 2007
6) Morad AH, et al : Ef ficacy of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia after supratentorial intracranial surgery : a prospective randomized controlled trial. J Neurosurg 111 : 343-350, 2009
7) Ture H, et al : The analgesic effect of gabapentin as a prophylactic anticonvulsant drug on postcraniotomy pain : a prospective randomized study. Anesth Analg 109 : 1625-1631, 2009
12) 谷上博信 : 顔面・頭頚部手術後の鎮静と鎮痛. 救急・集中治療 21 : 457-461, 2009
13) 佐藤健治 : 8. 頭頚部手術. 術後痛サービス (POPS) マニュアル, POPS研究会編, 真興交易医書出版部, 東京, 121-123, 2011
P.176 掲載の参考文献
1) 高橋正裕ほか : POPS研究会による全国アンケート調査の結果報告~腹部術後の術後鎮痛方に関する調査結果~. 日臨麻会誌 31 : 952-958, 2011
P.178 掲載の参考文献
1) 佐藤健治 : 周術期管理センター (ペリオ) の実際と看護師の役割. オペナーシング 27 : 108-111, 2012
2) Caumo W, et al : Preoperative predictors of moderate to intense acute postoperative pain in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 46 : 1265-1271, 2002
3) Practice guidelines for acute pain management in the perioperative setting : an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Acute Pain Management. Anesthesiology 100 : 1573-1581, 2004
P.179 掲載の参考文献
1) Pan PH, et al : The pain of childbirth and its effect on the mother and the fetus. In Chestnut's Obstetric Anesthesia : Principles and Practice, 4th ed, Chestnut DH, et al eds. Elsevier, Philadelphia, 387-404, 2009
2) 角倉弘行 : 分娩の痛み. 麻酔科学レクチャー 2 : 283-287, 2010
3) 角倉弘行 : 麻酔科医が知っておくべき痛みの評価の基礎知識. 日臨麻会誌 30 : 430-437, 2010
4) Melzack R : The myth of painless childbirth (The John J. Bonica Lecture). Pain 19 : 321-337, 1984
5) 角倉弘行 : 無痛分娩を希望する産婦のために-麻酔科医の果たすべき役割. 麻酔 54 : 134-142, 2005
P.182 掲載の参考文献
P.188 掲載の参考文献
2) Gomez-Arnau JI, et al : Postoperative nausea and vomiting and opioid-induced nausea and vomiting : guidelines for prevention and treatment. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim 57 : 508-524, 2010
9) Murphy JD, et al : Comparison of the postoperative analgesic efficacy of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with tramadol to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with opioids. J Opioid Manag 6 : 141-147, 2010
P.193 掲載の参考文献
1) Whitlock EL, et al : Postoperative delirium. Minerva Anestesiol 77 : 448-456, 2011
3) 坂部武史 : 手術・麻酔後の高次脳機能障害. 真興交易医書出版部, 東京, 191-214, 2009
4) Inouye SK, et al : Clarifying confusion : the confusion assessment method. A new method for detection of delirium. Ann Intern Med 113 : 941-948, 1990
5) Ely EW, et al : Evaluation of delirium in critically ill patients : validation of the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU). Crit Care Med 29 : 1370-1379, 2001
6) Ely EW, et al : The confusion assessment method for the ICU The complete training manual. http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/icudelirium/docs/CAM_ICU_training.pdf
8) Ely EW, et al : ICUのためのせん妄評価表 (CAM-ICU) トレーニングマニュアル. http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/icudelirium/docs/CAM_ICU_training_Japanese.pdf
9) 古賀雄二 : ICUにおけるせん妄の評価-日本語版CAMICU-. 看護技術 55 : 30-33, 2009
10) Deiner S, et al : Postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction. Br J Anaesth 103 (suppl 1) : i41-46, 2009
12) Lynch EP, et al : The impact of postoperative pain on the development of postoperative delirium. Anesth Analg 86 : 781-785, 1998
15) Marcantonio E, et al : A clinical prediction rule for delirium after elective noncardiac surgery. JAMA 271 : 134-139, 1994
16) Herrick IA, et al : Postoperative cognitive impairment in the elderly : choice of patient-controlled analgesia opioid. Anaesthesia 51 : 356-360, 1996
17) Rapp SE, et al : A multidimensional comparison of morphine and hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia. Anesth Analg 82 : 1043-1048, 1996
18) Silvasti M, et al : Comparison of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with tramadol versus morphine after microvascular breast reconstruction. Eur J Anaesthesiol 17 : 448-455, 2000
19) Adunsky A, et al : Meperidine analgesia and delirium in aged hip fracture patients. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 35 : 253-259, 2002
20) Morrison RS, et al : Relationship between pain and opioid analgesics on the development of delirium following hip fracture. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 58 : 76-81, 2003
21) Mann C, et al : Comparison of intravenous or epidural patient-controlled analgesia in the elderly after major abdominal surgery. Anesthesiology 92 : 433-441, 2000
22) Eriksson-Mjoberg M, et al : Extradural morphine gives better pain relief than patient-controlled i.v. morphine after hysterectomy. Br J Anaesth 78 : 10-16, 1997
23) Williams-Russo P, et al : Post-operative delirium : predictors and prognosis in elderly orthopedic patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 40 : 759-767, 1992
24) Riis J, et al : Immediate and long-term mental recovery from general versus epidural anesthesia in elderly patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 27 : 44-49, 1983
25) Robinson TN, et al : Postoperative delirium in the elderly : diagnosis and management. Clin Interv Aging 3 : 351-355, 2008
27) Marcantonio ER, et al : Reducing delirium after hip fracture : a randomized trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 49 : 516-522, 2001
P.197 掲載の参考文献
1) 田口奈津子ほか : 術後の睡眠パターンと低酸素血症について. 人工呼吸 12 : 147-150, 1995
2) POPS研究会編 : 術後痛サービス (POPS) マニュアル, 真興交易医書出版部, 東京, 56, 138-141, 2011
3) Miller RD : ミラー麻酔科学, 武田純三監修, メディカル・サイエンス・インターナショナル, 東京, 311-312, 1290-1292, 2007
4) Barletta JF : Clinical and economic burden of opioid use for postsurgical pain : focus on ventilator impairment and ileus. Pharmacotherapy 32 (9 suppl) : 12S-18S, 2012
6) 垣花学ほか編 : オピオイド基礎を知って臨床で使いこなす, 克誠堂出版, 東京, 197-204, 2012
7) Zhang Z, et al : Activation of opioid μ-receptors in the commissural subdivision of the nucleus tractus solitarius abolishes the ventilatory response to hypoxia in anesthetized rats. Anesthesiology 115 : 353-363, 2011
8) Noguchi N, et al : Breathing pattern and postoperative analgesia at various effect-site concentrations of fentanyl. Masui 58 : 1236-1243, 2009
9) Abdelmageed WM, et al : Analgesic properties of a dexmedetomidine infusion after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Saudi J Anesth 5 : 150-156, 2011
10) Calkins PM, et al : Hospital Coalition Group Endorses APSF Recommendations for PCA monitoring. APSF Newsletter 17, 2010
11) 伊藤健二 : 新しいアルゴリズム, 灌流指標PI, 脈波変動指標PVI-全身麻酔にどう活かすか-. 日臨麻会誌 31 : 501-506, 2011
P.202 掲載の参考文献
2) Story SK, et al : A comprehensive review of evidencebased strategies to prevent and treat postoperative ileus. Dig Surg 26 : 265-275, 2009
4) McNicol ED, et al : Mu-opioid antagonists for opioidinduced bowel dysfunction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008 : CD006332, 2008
9) Wente MN, et al : Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after pancreatic surgery : a suggested definition by the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS). Surgery 142 : 761-768, 2007
12) Marret E, et al : Meta-analysis of epidural analgesia vs parenteral opioid analgesia after colorectal surgery. Br J Surg 94 : 665-673, 2007
13) de Leon-Casasola OA, et al : Bowel function recovery after radical hysterectomies : thoracic epidural bupivacainemorphine versus intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with morphine : a pilot study. J Clin Anesth 8 : 87-92, 1996
14) Nishimori M, et al : Epidural pain relief versus systemic opioid-based pain relief for abdominal aor tic surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006 : CD005059, 2006
15) Dahl JB, et al : Differential analgesic effects of low-dose epidural morphine and morphine-bupivacaine at rest and during mobilization after major abdominal surgery. Anesth Analg 74 : 362-365, 1992
17) Hansen CT, et al : Effect of laxatives on gastrointestinal functional recovery in fast-track hysterectomy : a doubleblind, placebo-controlled randomized study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 196 : 311.e1-311.e7, 2007
20) van der Spoel JI, et al : Neostigmine resolves critical illness-related colonic ileus in intensive care patients with multiple organ failure-a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Itensive Care Med 27 : 822-827, 2001
21) 古川良幸 : 消化管運動と消化器外科 : 術後消化管運動麻痺と消化管運動改善薬の作用. 消化器外科 28 : 1437-1447, 2005
22) Papagallo M : Incidence, prevalence, and management of opioid bowel dysfunction. Am J Surg 182 : 11S-18S, 2001
24) Cheatham ML, et al : A meta-analysis of selective versus routine nasogastric decompression after elective laparotomy. Ann Surg 221 : 469-478, 1995
P.204 掲載の参考文献
2) 石村博史ほか : 術後回復強化を目指した胸部硬膜外鎮痛の実際. 臨床麻酔 35 (増) : 363-374, 2011
3) 石村博史ほか : 術後回復強化を目指した周術期管理における胸部硬膜外鎮痛の位置づけ. 日臨麻会誌 33 : 212-227, 2013
4) 山内康太ほか : 上部開腹手術における術後譫妄抑止に対する硬膜外鎮痛下理学療法の有効性. 日集中医誌 18 : 599-605, 2011
5) 綾部仁士ほか : 胃全摘術後における早期理学療法の効果について. 静脈経腸栄養 26 : 374, 2011
6) 綾部仁士ほか : 老化による身体機能低下と理学療法 高齢者の栄養管理と理学療法. 理学療法ジャーナル 43 : 885-894, 2009
7) 石村博史ほか : 早期経口摂取と良好な術後疼痛管理の重要性. ペインクリニック 31 : 769-778, 2010
8) 山内康太ほか : 胃癌術後における起立性低血圧の予測因子. 日集中医誌 (in press)
P.206 掲載の参考文献
P.212 掲載の参考文献
2) Pattinson D, et al : The neurobiology of infant pain : development of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal dorsal horn. Reg Anesth Pain Med 29 : 36-44, 2004
3) Ruda MA, et al : Altered nociceptive neuronal circuits after neonatal peripheral inflammation. Science 289 : 628-671, 2000
8) Association of Paediatric Anaesthesists of Great Britain and Ireland : Good practice in postoperative and procedural pain management, 2nd edition. Pediatr Anesth 22 (suppl 1) : 1-79, 2012
9) Macintyre PE, et al : Acute Pain Management : Scientific Evidence, 3rd ed, ANZCA & FPM, Melbourne, 2010
P.217 掲載の参考文献
2) American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn, et al : Prevention and management of pain in the neonate : an update. Pediatrics 118 : 2231-2241, 2006
4) McNeely JK, et al : Culture of bacteria from lumbar and caudal epidural catheters used for postoperative analgesia in children. Reg Anesth 22 : 428-431, 1997
5) 堀本洋 : 先取り鎮痛法としての全身麻酔下脊髄くも膜下ブロック. ペインクリニック 24 : 932-942, 2003
6) Ira TC, et al : Induction, Maintenance and Recovery. In Smith's Anesthesia for Infants and Children, 8th ed. Mosby, Inc Elsevier Inc, Philadelphia, 380, 2011
7) Rubin K, et al : Are peripheral and neuroaxial blocks with ultrasound guidance more effective and safe in children? Review article. Paediat Anesth 19 : 92-96, 2009
8) Shobha M, et al : Acute Pain. In : Cote CJ, et al. A Practice of Anesthesia for Infants and Children, 4th ed. Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc, Philadelphia, 939-978, 2009
9) Maxwell LG, et al : The effects of a small-dose Naloxone infusion on opioid-induced side effects and analgesia in children and adolescents treated with intravenous patientcontrolled analgesia : A double-blinded, prospective, randamaized, controlled study. Anesth Analg 100 : 953-958, 2005
10) Anand KJ, et al : Can adverse neonatal experience alter brain developement and subsequent behavior? Biol Neonate 77 : 69, 2000
11) Hall RW, et al : Morphine,hypotention, and adverse outcomes among preterm neonates : who's to blame? Secondary results from the NEOPAIN trial. Pediatrics 115 : 1351, 2005
P.220 掲載の参考文献
1) Jin F, et al : Minimizing perioperative adverse events in the elderly. Br J Anaesth 87 : 608-624, 2001
2) Ely EW, et al : Delirium in mechanically ventilated patients : validity and reliability of the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU). JAMA 286 : 2703-2710, 2001
4) Lynch EP, et al : The impact of postoperative pain on the development of postoperative delirium. Anesth Analg 86 : 781-785, 1998
7) 平川奈緒美 : 痛みの評価スケール. Anesthesia 21 Century 13 : 4-10, 2011
8) Gaglies L, et al : Age differences in postoperative pain are scale dependent : a comparison of measures of pain intensity and quality in younger and older surgical patients. Pain 103 : 11-20, 2003
9) Brodner G, et al : A multimodal approach to control postoperative pathophysiology and rehabilitation in patients undergoing abdominothoracic esophagectomy. Anesth Analg 86 : 228-234, 1998
10) Morrison RS, et al : Relationship between pain and opioid analgesics on the development of delirium following hip fracture. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 58 : 76-81, 2003
11) Ballantyne JC, et al : The comparative effects of postoperative analgesic. Therapies on pulmonary outcome : cumulative meta-analyses of randomized, controlled trials. Anesth Analg 86 : 598-612, 1998
12) Matot I, et al : Preoperative cardiac events in elderly patients with hip fracture randomized to epidural or conventional analgesia. Anesthesiology 98 : 156-163, 2003
13) Scheinin H, et al : Epidural infusion of bupivacaine and fentanyl reduces perioperative myocardial ischaemia in elderly patients with hip fracture-a randomized controlled trial. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 44 : 1061-1070, 2000
P.226 掲載の参考文献
1) Gibson SJ, et al : A review of age differences in the neurophysiology of nociception and the perceptual experience of pain. Clin J Pain 20 : 227-239, 2004
2) Aubrun F, et al : What pain scales do nurses use in the postanaesthesia care unit? Eur J Anaesthesiol 20 : 745-749, 2003
4) Mann C, et al : Comparison of intravenous or epidural patient-controlled analgesia in the elderly after major abdominal surgery. Anesthesiology 92 : 433-441, 2000
7) Komatsu H, et al : Comparison of patient-controlled epidural analgesia with and without background infusion after gastrectomy. Anesth Analg 87 : 907-910, 1998
8) Reuben SS, et al : An intrathecal fentanyl dose-response study in lower extremity revascularization procedures. Anesthesiology 81 : 1371-1375, 1994
10) Macintyre PE, et al : Age is the best predictor of postoperative morphine requirements. Pain 64 : 357-364, 1996
11) Lavand' Homme P, et al : Practical guidelines on the postoperative use if patient-controlled analgesia in the elderly. Drugs Aging 13 : 9-16, 1998
12) Webb AR, et al : The addition of a small-dose ketamine infusion to tramadol for postoperative analgesia : a doubleblinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial after abdominal surgery. Anesth Analg 104 : 912-917, 2007
14) Overdyk DJ, et al : Continuous oximetry/capnometry monitoring reveals frequent desaturation and bradypnea during patient-controlled analgesia. Anesth Analg 105 : 412-418, 2007
15) Silverstein J, et al : Central nervous system dysfunction after noncardiac surgery and anesthesia in the elderly. Anesthesiology 106 : 622-628, 2007
17) Peura DA : Prevention of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-associated gastrointestinal symptoms and ulcer complications. Am J Med 117 (suppl 5A) : 63S-71S, 2004
P.228 掲載の参考文献
P.230 掲載の参考文献
P.232 掲載の参考文献
1) Rawal N : Acute pain service revisited-Good from far, far from good? Reg Anesth Pain Med 27 : 117-121, 2002
2) Haljamae H, et al : Postoperative pain management-practice guideline. Current Anesthesia & Critical Care 14 : 203-206, 2003
3) 遠藤みどりほか : 臨床看護師の術後疼痛管理に対する主観的評価. 山梨県立看護大学紀要 6 : 13-24, 2004
4) McCaffery M, et al : 痛みの看護マニュアル, 季羽倭文子監訳, メヂカルフレンド社, 東京, 9-14, 1997
5) Weissman DE, et al : A role model program to promote institutional changers for management of acute and cancer pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 14 : 274-279, 1997
P.237 掲載の参考文献
1) Crombie IK, et al : Cut and thrust : antecedent surgery and trauma among patients attending a chronic pain clinic. Pain 76 : 167-171, 1998
2) Macrae WA, et al : Epidemiology of Pain. IASP Press, Seattle, 125-142, 1999
3) Johansen A, et al : Persistent postsurgical pain in a general population : Prevalance and predictors in Tromso study. Pain 153 : 1390-1396, 2012
5) Kojima KY, et al : Survey on recognition of post-mastectomy pain syndrome by breast specialist physician and present status of treatment in Japan. Breast Cancer 2012 (publishing)
7) Wallace MS, et al : Pain after breast surgery : a survey of 282 women. Pain 66 : 195-205, 1996
8) Poobalan AS, et al : A review of chronic pain after inguinal herniorrhaphy. Clin J Pain 19 : 48-54, 2003
9) Perkins FM, et al : Chronic pain as an outcome of surgery. Anesthesiology 93 : 1123-1133, 2000
P.242 掲載の参考文献
1) Brennan TJ, et al : Characterization of a rat model of incisional pain. Pain 64 : 493-501, 1996
2) Nishimura W, et al : Characterization of N-methyl-Daspartate receptor subunits responsible for postoperative pain. Eur J Pharmacol 503 : 71-75, 2004
3) Merskey H, et al : Classification of Chronic Pain : Descriptions of Chronic Pain Syndromes and Definitions of Pain Terms. IASP Press, 1994
8) Johansen A, et al : Persistent postsurgical pain in a general population : Prevalence and predictors in the Tromso study. Pain 153 : 1390-1396, 2012
9) Kajita Y, et al : Animal model with painful scar : painrelated behavior and immunohistochemical study on the spinal dorsal horn and peripheral tissue. Pain Res 25 : 135-144, 2010
11) Buvanendran A, et al : Perioperative oral pregabalin reduces chronic pain after total knee arthroplasty : A prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Pain Med 110 : 199-207, 2010
P.246 掲載の参考文献
1) 花岡一雄 : 最近の痛み治療の話題. 日医師会誌 139 : 352-353, 2010
2) 花岡一雄ほか : 痛み治療の選択基準-ドラッグチャレンジテストによる基準-. Brain Nerve 60 : 519-525, 2008
3) 花岡一雄ほか : フェンタニルクエン酸塩貼付薬. 肝胆膵 61 : 1316-1323, 2010
4) 花岡一雄ほか : フェンタニルパッチ デュロテップMTパッチ. ペインクリニック 33 (別冊秋号) : S410-416, 2012
5) 花岡一雄ほか : 経皮吸収剤持続性疼痛治療薬ブプレノルフィン. 日医師会誌 141 : 832-833, 2012
6) 花岡一雄ほか : トラマドール塩酸塩・アセトアミノフェン配合錠. 日医師会誌 141 : 102-103, 2012
7) 花岡一雄ほか : プレガバリン. ペインクリニック 32 : 441-444, 2011
8) 花岡一雄ほか : デュロキセチン塩酸塩. ペインクリニック 33 : 97-102, 2012
9) 花岡一雄 : 慢性疼痛とは何か. ASAHI Medical 12 : 20-21, 2012
P.250 掲載の参考文献
1) 井上真輔ほか : 尾張旭市慢性痛アンケート調査に基づいた慢性痛の実態. PAIN RES 27 : 86, 2012
2) Shipton EA : The transition from acute to chronic post surgical pain. Anaesth Intensive Care 39 : 824-836, 2011
3) 田倉智之 : 運動療法が医療財源を救う 医療経済としてのエビデンス. 臨運動療研誌 12 : 44-48, 2010
4) Davis KD, et al : Central mechanisms of pain revealed through functional and structural MRI. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2012 [Epub ahead of print]
7) Koike T, et al : Connectivity pattern changes in defaultmode network with deep non-REM and REM sleep. Neurosci Res 69 : 322-330, 2011
8) Hashmi JA, et al : Brain networks predicting placebo analgesia in a clinical trial for chronic back pain. Pain 153 : 2393-2402, 2012
P.252 掲載の参考文献
1) 井上真輔ほか : 神経障害性疼痛の治療. Brain Medical 24 : 19-26, 2012
2) 井上真輔ほか : 学際的痛みセンター. 脊椎脊髄 24 : 558-252
3) 下和弘ほか : 脳機能と腰痛. 脊椎脊髄 25 : 260-268,2012
4) 柴田政彦ほか : 慢性疼痛の管理体制に必要な知識 大学病院におけるMultidisciplinary Pain Clinicの実践. ペインクリニック 28 : S293-298, 2007
P.254 掲載の参考文献
2) Kehlet H, et al : Persistent postoperative pain : Pathogenic mechanisms and preventive strategies. Pain 2010 An Updated Review Refresher Course Syllabus, Mogil, J ed, IASP Press, Seattle,181-190, 2010
4) Thum S, et al : The association between psychosocial care by physicians and patients' trust : a retrospective analysis of severely injured patients in surgical intensive care units. Psychosoc Med 9 : Doc04.doi : 10.3205/psm000082. 2012
P.256 掲載の参考文献
1) 大西民子 : 大西民子歌集. 短歌研究社, 東京, 2002
2) 上田三四二 : 上田三四二全歌集. 短歌研究社, 東京, 1998
3) 春日井建 : 朝の水. 短歌研究社, 東京, 2004
4) 季題別石田波郷全句集. 角川学芸出版, 東京, 2009
5) 江國滋 : 「おい癌め酌みかはさうぜ秋の酒」江國滋闘病日記. 新潮社, 東京, 2000
6) 正木ゆう子 : 静かな水. 春秋社, 東京, 2002

最近チェックした商品履歴

Loading...